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Glenmaggie (Ge)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Glenmaggie - geoArea: 174 sq. km (0.9%)

This land system is mapped on hilly terrain with Carboniferous sediments and occurs close to the lower margin of the East Victorian Uplands and along some of the major river valleys. The ridge-and-ravine topography has moderately long, steep slopes prone to soil creep and rock outcrop is common. Small alluvial terraces similar to those mapped in Walnut land system occur in the major drainage corridors, for example along the Avon River. Glenmaggie is similar to Avon and Turton land systems in that it occurs on similar lithology in the less-humid areas, but is intermediate in relief and degree of dissection. Turton land system has the greatest relief and dissection and Avon the least.

Shallow, stony soils dominate because of high, natural erosion rates on the steep slopes, slow rates of soil formation on the siliceous, sedimentary parent rocks and moderate rainfall. The soils are acidic and tend to have little structural development except in the topsoils and those subsoils that are clayey.

Open forest II dominates with some open forest III on protected hill slopes and in major drainage corridors.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Glenmaggie - image
The lower relief and more gentle, cleared slopes of Glenmaggie land system contrast with the higher relief and steeper, forested slopes of Turton land system

Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

Annual 600 - 900; lowest July (40 - 70), highest October (60 - 90)

Annual 8 - 12; lowest July (3 - 7), highest February (16 - 20)
Temperature <10C (av.): May - September
Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
Age, lithology

Carboniferous siltstones, minor sandstones and conglomerates, often red (Snowy Plains Formation)
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

Hilly terrain with ridge-and-ravine topography

150 - 520
80 - 360
PRESENT LAND USEMostly uncleared: hardwood forestry (mainly minor products); apiculture (limited); bush grazing of cattle
Minor proportion cleared: grazing of beef cattle and sheep

    A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Glenmaggie - csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Glenmaggie - graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Exposed slopes, often with outcrops of
sub-horizontal beds
Protected slopes
Discontinuous terraces of major
drainage corridors
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
25 - 35, (20 - 60)
25 - 35, (20 - 60)
<5, (0 - 10)
Mostly straight
Parent material
Siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate
Stony alluvium
Limited observations — mostly shallow and stony with very dark greyish brown sandy loam topsoil merging into yellowish brown or reddish brown sandy loam; topsoil sometimes resting on yellowish brown clay
Limited observations — little differentiated and stratified soils varying from sandy loam to clay loam, often stony
Lithosols, Brown Podzolic Soils
Uc1.41, Uc4.13, Dy2.41
Alluvial Soils
Surface texture
Mainly lighter textures, e.g. sandy loam
Surface consistence
Slightly hard when dry, friable to firm when moist
Depth (m)
Probably 0.5 - 0.8, but deeper in pockets
Nutrient status
Low to moderate
Low to moderate
Available soil water capacity
Perviousness to water
Mostly good
Exposed stone (%)
Variable; <50
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and characteristic species of dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open forest II:
Mixed forests with variable composition —
including E. macrorhyncha+, E. polyanthemos+,
E. consideniana, E. muellerana, E. sieberi
Open forest II, III:
Mixed forests with variable composition —
including E. cypellocarpa+, E. globoidea+,
E. polyanthemos+, E. goniocalyx
Shrubby open forest II, III:
E. melliodora+ and/or E. viminalis+

Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:

    — reduction in leaf area, rooting

    depth and/or perenniality — reduction in density of tree roots
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep

    b) increased regolith

    Decreased root-binding

    Nutrient loss

    Soil creep

    Soil creep

    Not determined

    1,2; high

    1,2; high

    Not determined

    Common: on steep slopes

    Common: on steep slopes

    Removal of trees

    Accelerated by clearing of native vegetation

    Accelerated by clearing of native vegetation

    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams

    Increased sediment load

    Increased sediment load

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2; high
    Common; on cleared land
    Clearing, road building and other earth-moving activities, rabbit burrowing, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction


    reduced infiltration
    Structure decline

    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,3; low
    2; moderate

    1,2; high
    Not determined

    Not determined
    Increased trafficking export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill erosion above

    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion

    Streambank erosion
    1,2; high

    3; high
    Common: locally severe in major drainage corridors

    Common: locally severe
    in major drainage
    As for sheet and rill erosion above

    As for sheet and rill
    erosion above
    Increased sediment load.

    Increased turbidity of streams
    Comments: -
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