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Spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small
Common name(s):

spotted spurge
map showing the present distribution of chamaesyce maculata
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

[In Illinois, USA] include glades, dry sand prairies, cropland, gravelly areas along railroads and roadsides, lawns and sterile waste areas containing sand, gravel, or compacted soil. This plant prefers disturbed areas (Hilty 2009). Prefers minimally maintained public parks and open space, and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici undated). Spotted spurge is heat tolerant and drought tolerant; full sun to light shade; avoid frost (Bisby 2007). Spotted spurge germinates best when temperatures are between 23.9C and 29.4C, but germination can occur at temperatures as low as 15.5C and as high as 37.8C. Light also is a requirement for maximum germination (Molinar et al. 2009). [In California] C. maculata usually occurs in non-wetlands, but is occasionally found in wetlands; known to occur in coastal areas of California; between 0 and 200 metres (Calflora 2010).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Chamaesyce maculata infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of chamaesyce maculata
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Spotted spurge branches frequently at the base, forming a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall. However, where other vegetation is present, the stems may ascend to 6" in height (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge is a summer annual with a taproot; it has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit. It branches freely from the base (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
Minimal or negligible impact.
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2. Reduce tourism?Spotted spurge shoots produce a milky, latex sap when pinched or disturbed (Cox et al. 2006).
Diterpene esters in milky latex [of C. maculata] can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea when ingested. Redness, swelling, blisters after some delay following contact with skin and exposure to sunlight (Russell 1997).
Spotted spurge is a low-growing annual plant that often forms a dense, spreading mat, and is known to grow in compacted soils near paths and walkways. It overgrows sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, invades open areas in gardens and landscapes, and can grow in sidewalk cracks. In addition to reducing the growth of desirable plants, spotted spurge reduces uniformity and quality of turf/lawn areas (Molinar et al. 2009).
Minor effects to aesthetics and/or recreational uses (i.e. aware but not bothered or activity inhibited).
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3. Injurious to people?Spotted spurge shoots produce a milky, latex sap when pinched or disturbed. Members of the Euphorbiaceae family possess diterpene ester-type toxins that contaminate livestock fodder and may lead to dietary cancer in humans. These compounds are sufficiently toxic to be considered as carcinogens in primary and secondary consumers (Cox et al. 2006).
Diterpene esters in the milky latex [of C. maculata] can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea when ingested. Redness, swelling, blisters after some delay following contact with skin and exposure to sunlight (Russell 1997).
The spurges (Euphorbia spp. or Chamaesyce spp.) often have a milky sap that is an acrid latex compound. This sap is a mild skin irritant, but is also poisonous and is considered a carcinogenic. Exposure to the sun induces irritation (Purdue 2007).
Toxic properties at most times of the year or may be a major component in allergies, hayfever and/or asthma.
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4. Damage to cultural sites?Spotted spurge prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; abandoned grasslands (meadows); small-scale pavement openings (tree pits) and cracks; rock outcrops and stone walls (Del Tredici, undated).
Habitats of C. maculata include gravelly areas along railroads and roadsides, lawns and gardens, cracks in sidewalks and pavement, and borders along buildings. This plant prefers disturbed areas, and it is quite common in urban areas where there is a decaying infrastructure (Hilty 2009).
“The plant was sprawling over the edge of a sidewalk at the webmaster's apartment complex in Urbana, Illinois.” (Hilty 2009).
Moderate visual effect.
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Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Spotted spurge prefers full sun, dry conditions, and open barren ground that is sandy, gravelly, or rocky (Hilty 2009).
Prostrate spurge is a summer annual that survives on dry or sandy soil, low-nutrient soil and on compacted to disturbed sites (Kowalsick 2009).
On the basis that C. maculata is an annual plant that prefers arid conditions, it is unlikely to impact on water flow.
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
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6. Impact water quality?Spotted spurge prefers full sun, dry conditions, and open barren ground that is sandy, gravelly, or rocky (Hilty 2009).
Prostrate spurge is a summer annual that survives on dry or sandy soil, low-nutrient soil and on compacted to disturbed sites (Kowalsick 2009).
On the basis that C. maculata is an annual plant that prefers arid conditions, it is unlikely to impact on water quality.
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
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7. Increase soil erosion?Spotted spurge prefers dry conditions, and open barren ground that is sandy, gravelly, or rocky (Hilty 2009).
Prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici, undated).
On the basis that C. maculata prefers arid conditions and degraded landscapes, it is unlikely to increase soil erosion.
Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
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8. Reduce biomass?The weeds observed in biomass-collection subplots included, in order of decreasing total biomass, Ambrosia psilostachya, Elytrigia repens, Conyza canadensis, Rumex acetosella, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Euphorbia maculata, and Potentilla argentea (Blumenthal et al. 2003).
Spotted spurge grows close to the ground, often forming a dense mat. It overgrows sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, invades open areas in gardens and landscapes, and can grow in sidewalk cracks (Molinar et al. 2009).
Although spotted spurge is reported to overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, these vegetation types are probably similar in biomass to spotted spurge. Also, the open, barren or degraded habitats that this plant occupies are likely to be devoid of other vegetation, and so the presence of spotted spurge would possibly increase the biomass.
Biomass may increase.
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9. Change fire regime?Spotted spurge is a summer annual; it has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit and branches freely from the base (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
No specific reference could be found on the flammability of latex from C. maculata. On the basis that spotted spurge is a summer annual that may contribute to a minimal increase in dry biomass over the non-fire season, it is estimated that the increase in fire risk would be minor.
Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire risk.
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Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Ridged Plains Mallee (E); CMA = Mallee; Bioregion = Murray Mallee;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Spotted spurge branches frequently at the base, forming a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge can overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, and invade open areas in gardens and landscapes (Molinar et al. 2009).
C. maculata prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici, undated).
Minor displacement of some indicator spp. within any one strata/layer.
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(b) medium value EVCEVC = Grassy Dry Forest (D); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Spotted spurge branches frequently at the base, forming a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge can overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, and invade open areas in gardens and landscapes (Molinar et al. 2009).
C. maculata prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici, undated).
Minor displacement of some indicator spp. within any one strata/layer.
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(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (LC); CMA = West Gippsland; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Spotted spurge branches frequently at the base, forming a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge can overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, and invade open areas in gardens and landscapes (Molinar et al. 2009).
C. maculata prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici, undated).
Minor displacement of some indicator spp. within any one strata/layer.
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11. Impact on structure?Spotted spurge can overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, and invade open areas in gardens and landscapes (Molinar et al. 2009).
C. maculata prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; and abandoned grasslands (Del Tredici, undated).
Minor or negligible effect on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
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12. Effect on threatened flora?Impact on threatened flora has not yet been determined.
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Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Spotted spurge is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
If alternative food sources are scarce, threatened fauna may be affected by consumption of spotted spurge.
Minor effects on threatened spp.; minor hazard.
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14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Spotted spurge is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
If alternative food sources are scarce, non-threatened fauna may be affected by consumption of spotted spurge.
Minor effects on fauna spp.; minor hazard.
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15. Benefits fauna?Spotted spurge grows close to the ground, often forming a dense mat. The plant is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
This plant forms a spreading mat against barren ground. The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
Provides very little support to desirable species.
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16. Injurious to fauna?Spotted spurge is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
If alternative food sources are scarce, indigenous fauna may be affected by consumption of spotted spurge.
Toxic properties to fauna at certain times of the year.
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Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Spotted spurge is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
The nectar of the flowers attracts small bees, flower flies, and wasps. Some upland [North American] gamebirds eat the seeds. The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
Although some insects and birds are recorded as utilising this plant, the toxicity of the latex is a usually a deterrent to consumption.
Supplies food for one or more minor pest spp. (e.g. blackbirds or environmental insect pests).
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18. Provides harbor?Spotted spurge forms a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge is a summer annual that has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
No harbour for pest spp.
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Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Spotted spurge can establish in horticultural and agricultural sites. It overgrows sparse turf areas and can reduce uniformity and quality of turf, provides a habitat for undesirable insects in citrus groves, serves as an intermediate host for fungal diseases of cultivated crops, and attracts ants with its seed (Molinar et al. 2009).
A literature review indicated allelopathy to be a potential factor in the loss caused by many weeds of the Mid-South USA, e.g. Euphorbia maculata L. Allelopathy by weeds is a potential factor in crop losses (Elmore 1985).
Percent reduction in cotton height, leaf area, dry weight, boll numbers and seed cotton yield increased as spotted spurge densities increased (Bararpour et al. 1984).
Major impact on quantity of produce (e.g. 5-20%).
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20. Impact quality?A literature review indicated allelopathy to be a potential factor in the loss caused by many weeds of the Mid-South USA, e.g. Euphorbia maculata L. Allelopathy by weeds is a potential factor in crop losses (Elmore 1985).
Percent reduction in cotton height, leaf area, dry weight, boll numbers and seed cotton yield increased as spotted spurge densities increased (Bararpour et al. 1984).
Major impact on quality of produce (e.g. 5-20%).
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21. Affect land value?Spotted spurge has the capacity to reduce the growth of desirable plants (Molinar et al. 2009).
This plant prefers open barren ground that is sandy, gravelly, or rocky (Hilty 2009).
The group of plants called the spurges (Euphorbia spp. or Chamaesyce spp.) often have a milky sap that is an acrid latex compound. This sap is a mild skin irritant, but is also poisonous and is considered a carcinogenic Exposure to the sun induces irritation (Purdue 2007).
Considering that the preferred habitat for spotted spurge is barren ground, the potential effect on land value is minimal.
Decreases in land value <10%.
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22. Change land use?Spotted spurge can establish in horticultural and agricultural sites. It overgrows sparse turf areas and can reduce uniformity and quality of turf, provides a habitat for undesirable insects in citrus groves, serves as an intermediate host for fungal diseases of cultivated crops, and attracts ant with its seed. The latex is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
The milky latex of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
Downgrading of the priority land use to one with less agricultural return.
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23. Increase harvest costs?Spotted spurge can establish in horticultural and agricultural sites. It can reduce uniformity and quality of turf. The latex is poisonous and can kill sheep grazing in pastures where it is the predominant weed (Molinar et al. 2009).
Spotted spurge shoots produce a milky, latex sap when pinched or disturbed (Cox et al. 2006).
The group of plants called the spurges (Euphorbia spp. or Chamaesyce spp.) often have a milky sap that is an acrid latex compound. This sap is a mild skin irritant, but is also poisonous and is considered a carcinogenic Exposure to the sun induces irritation (Purdue 2007).
In some cases, control/removal of spotted spurge may be necessary prior to harvest. Also, personnel employed to harvest crops may be affected by the toxicity of latex in the plant.
Minor increase in cost of harvesting, e.g. slightly more time or labour is required.
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24. Disease host/vector?Spotted spurge can establish in horticultural and agricultural and non-crop sites. It provides a habitat for undesirable insects in citrus groves, serves as an intermediate host for fungal diseases of cultivated crops, and attracts ant with its seed (Molinar et al. 2009).
Spider mites were occasionally present on weeds adjacent to cotton fields in Mid-South USA (Steinkraus et al. post 2000).
The nectar of the flowers attracts small bees, flower flies, and wasps (Hilty 2009).
Provides host to minor (or common) pests or diseases.
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Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Spotted spurge is a summer annual. Seeds are small and can remain dormant in the soil until conditions are suitable for germination. Seeds that are produced in summer germinate readily whereas those produced in late fall are mostly dormant and won't germinate until spring. Germinates best when temperatures are between 23.9 and 29.4C, but germination can occur at temperatures as low as 15.5C and as high as 37.8C. Thus, when moisture is available, germination can occur [within these temperature ranges] (Molinar et al. 2009).
[The closely related species] Euphorbia supina (Prostrate spurge) seeds germinated at constant temperatures of 20−50C, with optimum temperatures of 25−30C. Maximum germination occurred under alternating temperatures, with a high temperature of 30−35C and a low temperature of 15−25C. Germination was much lower in the dark than in the light (Krueger and Shaner 1982).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
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2. Establishment requirements?Spotted spurge can establish itself in horticultural, agricultural, and noncrop sites. It overgrows sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, invades open areas in gardens and landscapes, and can grow in sidewalk cracks. Where open areas develop in the turf either from stress, disease, insects, or abuse, light is able to penetrate to the soil surface, allowing spotted spurge to germinate (Molinar et al. 2009).
The preference is full sun, dry conditions, and open barren ground that is sandy, gravelly, or rocky (including cracks in pavement) (Hilty 2009).
Requires more specific requirements to establish, e.g. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall.
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3. How much disturbance is required?Weedy in disturbed areas, cultivated areas, lawns and waste places (Russell 1997).
Spotted spurge grows in compacted soils near paths and walkways. Where open areas develop in the turf either from stress, disease, insects, or abuse, light is able to penetrate to the soil surface, allowing spotted spurge to germinate (Molinar et al. 2009).
Grows best in the full sun. Prefers trampled lawns in public parks; neglected residential and commercial landscapes; minimally maintained public parks and open space; vacant lots and rubble dump sites; abandoned grasslands (meadows); small-scale pavement openings (tree pits) and cracks; rock outcrops and stone walls (Del Tredici undated).
Establishes in highly disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. roadsides, wildlife corridors, or areas which have a greater impact by humans such as tourist areas or campsites) or in overgrazed pastures/poorly growing or patchy crops.
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Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Spotted spurge is a low-growing annual plant that often forms a dense mat that can grow up to 3 feet in diameter, with a central taproot system that is capable of extending more than 2 feet into the soil. (Molinar et al. 2009).
Spotted spurge is a summer annual with a taproot; it has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit, and branches freely from the base (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
Usually less than 1" tall, however, where other vegetation is present, the stems of Chamaesyce maculata may ascend to 6" in height (Hilty 2009)
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5. Allelopathic properties?Results showed aqueous shoot extracts of Euphorbia maculata could inhibit seed germination speed [in all four species studied], reduce seed germination rate in Lycopersicon esculentum, Schizonepeta tenuifolia and Capsicum frutescents, and its effects increased with the increase in concentration of extracts. High concentration (0.4g/ml) of extracts of Euphorbia maculata intensively inhibited root growth [in all four species] (Yuiqin et al. 2009).
Isolates from the weed Euphorbia maculata caused lesions on the hypocotyls, cotyledons, stems and leaves of soybeans, and purple stain on seeds of soybean (Nyval 1999).
A literature review indicated allelopathy to be a potential factor in the loss caused by many weeds of the Mid-South, e.g. Euphorbia maculata L. (Elmore 1985).
Results indicate that spotted spurge should also be allelopathic (Elmore and Paul 1983).
Spurge takes over by using up the native plant’s water and nutrients and by growing over other plants so that its toxins will prevent the growth of the plants beneath it. (Flynn 2010).
Allelopathic properties seriously affecting some plants.
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6. Tolerates herb pressure?Spotted spurge is poisonous and has been known to cause death when sheep graze pastures where it is the predominant weed. Sheep that consumed as little as 0.62% of their body weight of spotted spurge have died within a few hours (Molinar et al. 2009).
Brassica sp. seed meal, poinsettia and spurge shoot extracts showed most promise as possible biocontrol agents of sting nematodes (Campbell et al. 2006).
The milky juice of the foliage is somewhat toxic to mammalian herbivores, and so this plant is rarely eaten by them (Hilty 2009).
Long-term low mowing of Kentucky bluegrass at the University of California South Coast Field Station resulted in the predominance of spotted spurge (Gibeault et al. 1981).
Favoured by heavy grazing pressure as not eaten by animals/insects and not under a biological control program in Australia/New Zealand.
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7. Normal growth rate?Spotted spurge is a summer annual with a mat-like growth that often chokes out desirable turfgrasses (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
The Ground Spurges develop slowly, and don't become conspicuous until late summer (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge may flower within three to four weeks after emerging in mid-summer. The fruit, a three-lobed capsule, develops rapidly (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?The preferred environment for C. maculata is full sun, dry conditions (Hilty 2009).
Grows best in the full sun. A weed of summer that disappears with the first frost (Del Tredici undated).
Heat tolerant. Drought tolerant. Avoid frost (Bisby et al. 2009).
Maybe tolerant of one stress, susceptible to at least two.
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Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemProstrate Spurge is usually monoecious, each plant having separate male and female flowers. Less commonly, a plant may be unisexual, producing either all male flower or all female flowers, but not both (Hilty 2009).
In Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce [the three species studied], the differences in reliance on insect vectors, diversity of insects and probable amount of outcrossing are related to cyathial size and arrangement. All [three] species are self-compatible. The reproductive biology of the three species is similar to that described for other weedy plant taxa (Ehrenfeld 1976).
Sexual (self and cross-pollination).
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10. Number of propagules produced?Each female flower has a 3-valved seed capsule, each valve of the capsule contains a single 4-angled seed (Hilty 2009).
Female flowers carry a three part pistil over a three part ovary, producing three or sometimes more seeds (Bisby et al. 2009).
Prostrate spurge is a prolific seed producer, so often hundreds of seeds will germinate at the same time (Altland undated).
Spotted spurge is a summer annual that does not like competition and depends on its prolific seed production for survival. A single plant is capable of producing several thousand seeds (Molinar et al. 2009).
Above 2000.
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11. Propagule longevity?Seeds can remain dormant in the soil until conditions are suitable for germination. Seeds that are produced in summer germinate readily, whereas those produced in late fall are mostly dormant and won't germinate until spring (Molinar et al. 2009).
On the basis of C. maculata being an annual that reproduces from seed only, and from information about propagule longevity in other Euphorbia spp. inferred from literature, it is unlikely that propagules of C. maculata would survive for more than 5 years.
Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5 years.
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12. Reproductive period?Spotted spurge is a summer annual (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
The blooming period occurs from mid-summer through the fall and lasts about 2 months for individual plants (Hilty 2009).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for only 1 year.
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13. Time to reproductive maturity?Spotted spurge may flower within three to four weeks after emerging in mid-summer. The fruit, a three-lobed capsule, develops rapidly (TurfFiles 2000−2008).
Reproductive growth is rapid and seeds can be produced as soon as 5 weeks after germination (Molinar et al. 2009).
Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules, or vegetative propagules become separate individuals, in under a year.
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?This plant spreads [mainly] by reseeding itself. Some upland [North American] gamebirds eat the seeds. Because the seeds become sticky when wet, they can cling to the fur of animals and to the bottoms of shoes, and so they are distributed by animals and humans to some extent (Hilty 2009).
Spotted spurge attracts ants with its seed (Molinar et al. 2009).
We found that C. maculata has two modes of seed dispersal; autochory in the summer and myrmecochory in the autumn. The ant species Tetramorium tsushimae may be an effective seed disperser for C. maculata (Ohnishi 2008).
Propagules spread by wind, water, attachment (humans, animals, or vehicles), or accidental human dispersal.
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15. How far do they disperse?This plant spreads [mainly] by reseeding itself. Some upland [North American] gamebirds eat the seeds. Because the seeds become sticky when wet, they can cling to the fur of animals and to the bottoms of shoes, and so they are distributed by animals and humans to some extent (Hilty 2009).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
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References

Atland J. (undated) Weed Management in Nursery Crops. Oregon State University, North Willamette Research & Extension Centre.
Available at http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nursery-weeds/weedspeciespage/spurge/spurge_page.html (verified Feb 2010).

Bararpour MT, Talbert RE and Frans RE. (1994) Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Science 42: 553−555.
Available at http://www.jstor.org/pss/4045453 (verified Feb 2010).

Bisby FA, Roskov YR, Ruggiero MA, Orrell TM, Paglinawan LE, Brewer PW, Bailly N, van Hertum J. Eds (2007) Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Available at http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/E/Euphorbia_maculata/ (verified Feb 2010).

Blumenthal DM, Jordan NR and Svenson EL. (2003) Weed control as a rationale for restoration: the example of tallgrass prairie. Conservation Ecology 7(1): 6.
Available at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss1/art6/ (verified Feb 2010).

Cox CJ, McCarty LB, Toler JE, Lewis SA and Martin SB. (2006) Suppressing Sting nematodes with extracts of Brassica spp., Poinsettia and Spotted Spurge extracts. Agronomy Journal 98: 962−967. Available at http://agron.scijournals.org/cgi/content/full/98/4/962 (verified Feb 2010).

Del Tredici P. (undated) Emergent Vegetation of the Urban Ecosystem. Harvard Graduate School of Design, Euphorbia maculata (Spotted Spurge) page.
Available at http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/loeb_library/information_systems/projects/E_vue/plants/euphorbia_maculata.htm (verified Feb 2010).

Elmore CD. (1985) Assessment of the Allelopathic Effects of Weeds on Field Crops in the Humid Midsouth. In The Chemistry of Allelopathy, Chapter 3, pp 21–32, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 268. Available at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/bk-1985-0268.ch003 (verified Feb 2010).

Elmore CD and Paul RN. (1983) Phenolic deposits and Kranz Syndrome in leaf tissues of Spotted (Euphorbia maculata) and prostrate (Euphorbia supina) spurge. Weed Sciences 31: 131−136. Available at http://www.jstor.org/pss/4043581 (verified Feb 2010).

Ehrenfeld J. (1976) Reproductive biology of three species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). American Journal of Botany 73(4): 406−413. Available at http://www.jstor.org/pss/2441907 (verified Feb 2010).

Flynn H. (2003−2010) WiseGeek, Spotted Spurge page. Available at http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-spurge.htm (verified Feb 2010).

Gibeault VA, Bowen WR, Ohr HD, Thomason IJ and Cress F. (1981) Integrated Pest Management for Turf. California Turfgrass Culture 31(2): 13−15. Available at
http://ohric.ucdavis.edu/Newsltr/CTC/ctcv31_2.pdf (verified Feb 2010).

Hilty J. (2009) Illinois Wildflowers, Weedy Wildflowers of Illinois, Chamaesyce maculata page. Available at http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/savanna/plants/coralberry.htm (verified Jan 2010).

Kowalsick R. (2009) Control of Broadleaf Lawn Weeds, Summer Annual Broadleaf Weeds. Insect and Plant Disease Laboratory, Cornell Cooperative Extension − Suffolk County. Available at http://ccesuffolk.org/assets/Horticulture-Leaflets/Control-of-Broadleaf-Lawn-Weeds.pdf (verified Jan 2010).

Kreuger RR and Shanner DL. (1982) Germination and establishment of prostrate spurge (Euphorbia supina). Weed Science 30: 286−290. Available at
http://www.jstor.org/pss/4043529 (verified Feb 2010).

Molinar RH, Cudney DW, Elmore CL and Sanders A. (2009) Pest Notes for Home and Landscape, No. 7445 Spotted Spurge. University of California, Davis. Available at
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnspottedspurge.pdf (verified Feb 2010).

Nyvall, RF. (1999) Field Crop Diseases. Iowa State University Press. Available at http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ENqo_0-Ahi0C&pg=PA651&lpg=PA651&dq=%22spotted+spurge%22+germination&source=bl&ots=CnaNYfRGKi&sig=tVXktNaSjDbYg-Gy0zPLMuxUjnk&hl=en&ei=66hnSbEFI_m7AOCw-jIBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAcQ6AEwADhQ#v=onepage&q=%22spotted%20spurge%22%20germination&f=false (verified Feb 2010).

Ohnishi Y. (2008) Seasonally different modes of seed dispersal in the prostrate annual, Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small (Euphorbiaceae), with multiple overlapping generations. Ecological Research, 23 (2): 299−305. In Ecology: New ecology findings from Saga University. Journal of Farming. Atlanta. p. 316. Available at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1541144921&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=57994&RQT=309&VName=PQD (verified Feb 2010).

Purdue University (2007) Don’t Touch Me Plants, Spurges page. Purdue University, Purdue Extension, Weed Science. Available at http://btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/2007/DontTouchMePlants.pdf (verified Feb 2010).

Russell A. In collaboration with: Dr. James W. Hardin, Dr. Larry Grand and Dr. Angela Fraser. (1997) Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, North Carolina State University. Available at http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/Euphoma.htm (Verified Feb 2010).

Steinkraus D, Zawislak J, Lorenz1 G, Layton B and Leonard R. (post 2009) Spider Mites on Cotton in the Midsouth. University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture. Available at http://www.cottoninc.com/Entomology/SpiderMitesCottonMidsouth/SpiderMitesCottonMidsouth.pdf (verified Feb 2010).

TurfFiles (2000−2008) Chamaesyce maculata page, Centre for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education, North Carolina State University. Available at http://www.turffiles.ncsu.edu/turfid/csPagedPdField.aspx?PlantID=EPHMA (verified Feb 2010).

Yuiqin C, Hongwei W, Hongjan Z, Wenjing L. (2009) Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from Euphorbia maculata on Several Vegetable Species. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin 25(02): 81−84. Available at http://211.103.157.86/zgnxtb/EN/abstract/abstract19326.shtml (verified Feb 2010).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research. Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 16 Mar 2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility. Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2010) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2010) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 20 Aug 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2007) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 19 Jan 2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19 Jan 2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small page. Available at
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CHMA15 (verified 19 Jan 2010).


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