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Silene (Silene coeli-rosa)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Silene coeli-rosa (L.) Godr.
Common name(s):

silene
map showing the present distribution of silene coeli-rosa
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Silene coeli-rosa occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010). Suitable for rock gardens, shade gardens; tolerates coastal conditions; drought tolerant (ZipcodeZoo 2004–2009). Used as a wildflower/meadow plant (Dulley 2010). Grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; granitic hillslopes; riverine woodland/forest

Colours indicate possibility of Silene coeli-rosa infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of silene coeli-rosa
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Taprooted annual; stems 1–several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
Minimal or negligible impact.
L
M
2. Reduce tourism?S. coeli-rosa is a winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002), and is a popular horticulture plant (see Brickell 1999), so may have some aesthetic appeal.
Weeds not obvious to the average visitor.
L
ML
3. Injurious to people?S. coeli-rosa is a glabrous annual plant (Flora of NW Europe undated; Phillips and Rix 2002; eFlora of NZ 2004).
No effect, no prickles, no injuries.
L
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?Taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
Little or negligible effect on aesthetics or structure of site.
L
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004). Although this plant occurs in riverbeds, it is essentially terrestrial, occurring on waste land and railway yards (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Little or negligible effect on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004). Although this plant occurs in riverbeds, it is essentially terrestrial, occurring on waste land and railway yards (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
No noticeable affect on dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual plant (eFlora of NZ 2004).
Low probability of large scale soil movement.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Direct replacement of biomass by invader.
ML
M
9. Change fire regime?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire.
ML
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Sandy Stream Woodland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion =Dundas Tablelands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).
Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Herb-rich Foothills Forest (D); CMA =Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).
Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
(c) low value EVCEVC = Coastal Headland Scrub (LC); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Bridgewater;
VH CLIMATE potential.
S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).
Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
11. Impact on structure?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).
Minor or negligible effect on <20% of the floral strata present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
L
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Impact on threatened flora has not yet been determined.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Impact on threatened fauna has not yet been determined.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Impact on non-threatened fauna has not yet been determined.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?Flowering over several months, S. coeli-rosa attracts butterflies and hummingbirds (ZipcodeZoo 2004–2009).
Taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
Provides very little support to desirable species.
H
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?S. coeli-rosa is a glabrous annual plant (Flora of NW Europe undated; Phillips and Rix 2002; eFlora of NZ 2004).
A literature search on this plant failed to locate any references to characteristics that are injurious to fauna.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Flowering over several months, S. coeli-rosa attracts butterflies and hummingbirds (ZipcodeZoo 2004–2009).
Provides minimal food for pest animals.
L
L
18. Provides harbour?Taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
This plant occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
No harbour for pest species.
L
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Although another species of Silene, i.e. S. noctiflora is found in most agricultural areas of North America, and is considered an important weed in grain and leguminous crops, as well as a serious weed in other cultivated crops and pastures (NAPPO 2003), no reference associating S. coeli-rosa with agricultural activities was located.
Little or negligible effect on quantity of yield.
L
L
20. Impact quality?Although another species of Silene, i.e. S. noctiflora, is found in most agricultural areas of North America, and is considered an important weed in grain and leguminous crops, as well as a serious weed in other cultivated crops and pastures (NAPPO 2003), no reference associating S. coeli-rosa with agricultural activities was located.
Little or negligible effect on quality of yield.
L
L
21. Affect land value?Although another species of Silene, i.e. S. noctiflora, is found in most agricultural areas of North America, and is considered an important weed in grain and leguminous crops, as well as a serious weed in other cultivated crops and pastures (NAPPO 2003), no reference associating S. coeli-rosa with agricultural activities was located.
S. coeli-rosa occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Little or none.
L
L
22. Change land use?Although another species of Silene, i.e. S. noctiflora, is found in most agricultural areas of North America, and is considered an important weed in grain and leguminous crops, as well as a serious weed in other cultivated crops and pastures (NAPPO 2003), no reference associating S. coeli-rosa with agricultural activities was located.
S. coeli-rosa occurs on waste land, railway yards and in riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), and as an occasional garden escape (Flora of NW Europe undated; eFlora of NA 2010).
Little or no change.
L
L
23. Increase harvest costs?Although another species of Silene, i.e. S. noctiflora, is found in most agricultural areas of North America, and is considered an important weed in grain and leguminous crops, as well as a serious weed in other cultivated crops and pastures (NAPPO 2003), no reference associating S. coeli-rosa with agricultural activities was located.
Little or none.
L
L
24. Disease host/vector?Well-studied examples of vector-borne plant disease are the anther-smut infection of Silene alba (Altizer et al. 1998) and S. dioica (Biere and Honders 1996).
Provides host to minor or common pests or diseases.
M
ML


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?For the annual Silene coeli-rosa, sow at 15.5–18.3 C, 7–14 days (Germination Database 1999).
Seeds of Agrostemma grown at 20˚ C completed their maximum germinability in 36 hr; at 10˚ C the completion of germination was delayed 24 hr, and no germination at 30˚ C for 5 days. The thermodormancy is clearly induced in seeds grown at 30˚ C (Ching 1975).
Results of germination trials showed that Silene secundiflora correlated with a situation in which germination normally occurs in September at the start of the winter growing season (Thompson 1970).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?Silene are grown in full sun to dappled shade (Brickell 1996).
Silene coeli-rosa may self-sow nearby urban plantings (Crawley 2005).
Silene coeli-rosa found on bare shingle near car park, South Hayling Island, Wales (Copping 1992).
Requires specific requirements to establish.
ML
ML
3. How much disturbance is required?S. coeli-rosa occurs in waste land, railway yards, riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004), in damp, grassy places (Phillips and Rix 2002) and in gardens and as an occasional escape on tips and in waste places (Flora of NW Europe undated).
Silene coeli-rosa may self-sow nearby urban plantings (Crawley 2005).
Silene coeli-rosa found on bare shingle near car park, South Hayling Island, Wales (Copping 1992).
Establishes in highly disturbed natural ecosystems.
ML
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Taprooted annual; stems 1-several, erect, glabrous, (15)–20–45 cm tall (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual with smooth upright stems 20–50 cm (Phillips and Rix 2002).
A summer annual growing to 24 inches tall (Swallowtail 2010).
Other.
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?Allelopathic interactions were observed between populations and between individuals within populations of Silene nutans (De Bilde and Lefebvre 1990).
No specific reference associating allelopathy with Silene coeli-rosa was located.
L
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Literature searches failed to locate references linking allelopathy with the genus Silene.
H
L
7. Normal growth rate?Annual plants that have a quite vigorous development (Gardening EU 2010).
Flowers appear in summer on this fast-growing free-flowering annual plant (Dulley 2010).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
L
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Can bear very harsh temperatures without any problems, even many degrees below zero (Gardening EU 2010).
Silene are hardy to –15C (Brickell 1996).
Tolerates drought and coastal conditions (ZipcodeZoo 2004–2009).
Requires a neutral, well-drained soil (ZipcodeZoo 2004–2009; Dulley 2010).
Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, waterlogging and salinity, and may be tolerant of another; susceptible to at least one.
MH
ML
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemSilene species reproduce by seed (eFlora of NA 2010) and often self-seed freely (Brickell 1999; Crawley 2005).
S. coeli-rosa is strongly protandrous making it an obligate out-breeder (Allnutt et al. 2007).
Sexual (self and cross-pollination).
ML
ML
10. Number of propagules produced?Silene inflorescences with flowers few or solitary; seeds ca. (5–)15–100(–500+) (eFlora of NA 2010).
50–1,000.
ML
ML
11. Propagule longevity?Literature searches failed to locate references linking propagule longevity with the genus Silene.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?S. coeli-rosa is a taprooted annual plant (eFlora of NZ 2004).
A winter or spring annual (Phillips and Rix 2002).
They bloom over a very long season (Swallowtail 2010).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for only one year.
L
M
13. Time to reproductive maturity?S. coeli-rosa is considered an annual plant (Brickell 1999; Phillips and Rix 2002; eFlora of NZ 2004).
Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules in under a year.
H
M
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?S. coeli-rosa is a popular horticulture plant (see Brickell 1999; Phillips and Rix 2002).
S. coeli-rosa occurs in waste land, railway yards, riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004).
Propagules spread by water or deliberate human dispersal.
MH
ML
15. How far do they disperse?S. coeli-rosa is a popular horticulture plant (see Brickell 1999; Phillips and Rix 2002), so long-distance dispersal possible through deliberate human dispersal.
S. coeli-rosa occurs in waste land, railway yards, riverbeds (eFlora of NZ 2004).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometre.
H
ML


References

Allnutt GV, Rogers HJ, Dennis Francis D and Herbert RJ. (2007) A LEAFY-like gene in the long-day plant, Silene coeli-rosa is dramatically up-regulated in evoked shoot apical meristems but does not complement the Arabidopsis lfy mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany 2007 58(8): 2249–2259. Available at
http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/58/8/2249 (verified 24 May 2010).

Altizer SM, Thrall PH and Antonovics J. (1998) Vector Behaviour and the Transmission of Anther-Smut Infection in Silene alba American Midland Naturalist 139(1): 147–163. Available at http://people.virginia.edu/~ja8n/labhome/Altizer_Thrall_Antonovics_1998.pdf (verified 11 June 2010).

Biere A and Honders SJ. (1996) Impact of Flowering Phenology of Silene alba and S. dioica on Susceptibility to Fungal Infection and Seed Predation. Oikos 77(3): 467–480. Available at http://www.jstor.org/pss/3545936 (verified 11 June 2010).

Brickell C. (Ed.) (1996) A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. The Royal Horticultural Society. Covent Garden Books, London.

Ching, TM. (1975) Temperature Regulation of Germination in Crimson Clover Seeds. Plant Physiology 56: 768–771. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC541921/pdf/plntphys00153-0049.pdf (verified 24 May 2010).

Copping A. (1992) B.S.B.I. News No. 60, Department of Botany, National Museum of Wales. Available at http://www.watsonia.org.uk/BSBINews60.pdf#page=25 (verified 25 May 2010).

Crawley MJ. (2005) Plant Communities of Berkshire, Built environments of towns and villages, Urban Annuals. Available at
http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/portal/pls/portallive/docs/1/587936.PDF (verified 25 May 2010).

De Bilde J and Lefebvre C. (1990) The strategy of Silene nutans on calcareous and siliceous soils. Acta Oecologica 11(3): 399–408. Available at
http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=2401121&q=%22silene%22+allelopathy&uid=789490760&setcookie=yes (verified 25 May 2010).

Dulley J. (2010) Plant Selectors Guide. Silene coeli-rosa (Rose of Heaven). Available at http://www.dulley.com/plant/a118.shtml (verified 10 June 2010).

eFlora of NA (2010) Electronic Flora of North America. Vol. 5. Capriphyllaceae. Silene. Available at http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=130349 (verified 24 May 2010).

eFlora of NZ (2004) Flora of New Zealand, Silene coeli-rosa (L.) Godron. Available at
http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Taxon.aspx?id=_e5debb32-9e35-43c2-9063-5c24bf7f6632&fileName=Flora%204.xml (verified 24 May 2010).

Firbank LG and Watkinson AR. (1986) Modelling the population dynamics of an arable weed and its effects upon crop yield. Journal of Applied Ecology 23:
147–159.

Flora of NW Europe (undated) Interactive Flora of NW Europe. Silene coeli-rosa page. Available at
http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/bis/flora.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=1977 (verified 24 May 2010).

Gardening eu (2010) Silene coeli-rosa, Rose Angel, Catchfly page. Available at http://www.gardening.eu/plants/Annual-plants/Silene-coeli-rosa/1873/ (verified 24 May 2010).

Germination Database (1999) Annual/Biennial Seed Germination Database, Silene Coeli-rosa. Available at http://tomclothier.hort.net/page06.html (verified 24 May 2010).

NAPPO (2003) North American Plant Protection Organisation, Pest Plant Factsheet, Silene noctiflora L. Available at http://www.nappo.org/PRA-sheets/Silenenoctiflora.pdf (verified 26 May 2010).

Phillips R and Rix M. (2002) Annuals and Biennials, Silene coeli-rosa. Pan Books, London. p. 85.

Swallowtail (2010) Swallowtail Garden Seeds, Silene coeli-rosa. Available at http://www.swallowtailgardenseeds.com/annuals/viscaria.html (verified 24 May 2010).

Thompson PA. (1970) Changes in germination responses of Silene secundiflora in relation to the climate of its habitat. Physiologia Plantarum 23(4): 739–746. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119699931/abstract (verified 25 May 2010).

ZipcodeZoo (2004–2009) ZipcodeZoo. Silene coeli-rosa 'Angel Rose' page. Available at http://bayscience.org/Plants/S/Silene_coeli-rosa_Angel_Rose/ (verified 10 June 2010).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 1 June 2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 27 April 2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2010) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 27 April 2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2010) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 27 April 2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2010) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 9 March 2010).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2007) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 27 April 2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 27 April 2010).


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