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Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Pinus ponderosa P & C Lawson.
Common name(s):

ponderosa pine
map showing the present distribution of pinus ponderosa
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Found in a variety of soils from sea level to 2800 m, though mainly inland and in drier areas, deep well drained soil (PFAF 1997-2000). Shade
intolerant. Annual extremes from -40 to 43C. Seeds and seedlings do not germinate and establish until the soil is continuously warm & moist.
Drought is not a major variable in seedling survival beyond age 2, except where there is grass cover (Oliver and Ryker undated).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Lowland forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; granitic hillslopes

Colours indicate possibility of Pinus ponderosa infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of pinus ponderosa
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Growing to 25m by 7 m (PFAF 1997-2000). Pine trees can grow at high density of about 1000 saplings per hectare (NZFFA 2005). People and/or vehicles access with difficulty.
MH
MH
2. Reduce tourism?Ponderosa pine forests are important for recreational use, and for aesthetic values (Oliver and Ryker undated). May affect some recreational uses by restricting access to waterways and blocking paths. Some recreational uses affected.
MH
MH
3. Injurious to people?The wood saw dust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people (PFAF 19972000). Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues (e.g. hay fever, minor rashes, minor damage from spines and burrs at certain times of year).
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MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?Seedlings have the ability to grow vigorous taproots, and lateral roots may double or triple in length over the next two years, lateral roots may extend 46 m (Oliver and Ryker undated). Likely to be able to cause damage to paths and other structures. Moderate structural effect.
MH
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Large evergreen tree, growing to 25m by 7 m. Trees live 300-600 years (PFAF 1997-2000). Therefore falling branches and debris may reduce flow of some streams. The hydrology of 17-year-old pine plantation approximates that of the earlier eucalypt forest it displaced (CRC 1998). Minor impact on surface or subsurface flow either by roots or free floating aquatics.
ML
M
6. Impact water quality?The hydrology of 17-year-old pine plantation approximates that of the earlier eucalypt forest it displaced (CRC 1998). Negligible impact compared to a eucalypt forest, if compared to an open stream with plenty of sunlight and Ponderosa pine established there then light levels would be reduced. No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?A fairly wind tolerant tree, it can be used in shelter belt plantings (PFAF 1997-2000). Seedlings have the ability to grow vigorous taproots, and lateral roots may double or triple in length over the next two years, lateral roots may extend 46 m (Oliver and Ryker undated). Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?Growing to 25m by 7 m (PFAF 1997-2000). Pine trees can grow at high density of about 1000 saplings per hectare (NZFFA 2005). Seedlings have the ability to grow vigorous taproots, and lateral roots may double or triple in length over the next two years, lateral roots may extend 46 m (Oliver and Ryker undated). Biomass likely to increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?Cones make a quick fire, whilst the scales from the trunk bark burn easily, Some tree stumps contain high concentrations of pitch which makes them inflammable (burns, ignites easily) (PFAF 1997-2000). Seedlings are readily killed by fire; larger trees possess thick bark, which offers effective protection from fire damage (Oliver and Ryker undated). Moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
MH
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Seasonally inundated Shrubby Woodland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion =Glenelg Plain; VH CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Rocky Outcrop Shrubland/Rocky Outcrop Herbland mosaic (R); CMA =Goulburn Broken; Bioregion =Highlands- Northern Fall; VH CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Herb-rich Foothills Forest (LC); CMA =North East; Bioregion = Highlands- Northern Fall; VH CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
H
11. Impact on structure?Competition from other plants, including neighbouring trees and shrubs can reduce diameter growth markedly, especially on droughty soils. Trees grown with intense competition are also subject to more insect damage (Kocher undated). The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat (PFAF 1997-2000). Minor effect on 20-60% of the floral strata.
ML
MH
12. Effect on threatened flora?Even beneath a light overstorey stand casting 47 percent shade, ponderosa pine saplings grew only about half as rapidly as their associates (Douglas-fir, sugar pine, white fir, and incense-cedar) (Oliver and Ryker undated). Some allelopathic effects (PFAF 1997-2000). Unlikely to have a great affect – no specific examples. Any population of a VROT species is reduced.
ML
M
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Important wildlife habitat (Oliver and Ryker undated). No specific examples, unlikely to have negative effect.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Ponderosa pine communities are important wildlife habitat. The forest understorey provides valuable browsing and grazing for wildlife and livestock. Wildlife also uses ponderosa pine woodland-grassland mosaics heavily. Merriam’s turkeys roost in stands of ponderosa (USU 2002). Minor effects on fauna species; minor hazard or reduction in habitat/food/ shelter.
ML
MH
15. Benefits fauna?Ponderosa pine communities are important wildlife habitat. The forest understorey provides valuable browsing and grazing for wildlife and livestock. Wildlife also uses ponderosa pine woodland-grassland mosaics heavily. Merriam’s turkeys roost in stands of ponderosa (USU 2002). Provides an important alternative food source and/or harbour to desirable species but no specific examples for Australian fauna.
ML
M
16. Injurious to fauna?No spines, burrs or thorns. Pregnant cows that consume large amounts of ponderosa pine needles during cold spells show an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive anomalies (USU 2002). Some toxic properties. Spines, burrs or toxic properties to fauna at certain times of the year.
MH
M
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Ponderosa pine seeds are consumed by a great many birds and small mammals such as mice, chipmunks, and tree squirrels (Oliver and Ryker undated). Supplies food for one or more minor pest species (e.g. blackbirds or environmental insect pests).
ML
MH
18. Provides harbour?Snags in the mature pine forest provide a large number of species with nesting and roosting sites. Big game, such as deer and elk, also use the pine forests for food and shelter (Oliver and Ryker undated). Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest species but may provide for minor pest species.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?When herbaceous vegetation is sparse, however, livestock may browse ponderosa pine enough to slow or stop seedling recruitment. Pregnant cows that consume large amounts of ponderosa pine needles during cold spells show an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive anomalies (USU 2002). Minor impact on quantity of produce (e.g. < 5% reduction).
ML
MH
20. Impact quality?Unpalatable to domestic livestock. Pregnant cows that consume large amounts of ponderosa pine needles during cold spells show an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive anomalies (USU 2002). Minor impact on quality of produce (e.g. < 5% reduction).
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MH
21. Affect land value?Potential to negatively affect livestock (USU 2002). Also toxins in leaves can prevent establishment of crops such as wheat. But is used in shelter belt plantings (PFAF 1997-2000) and can provide shade for livestock. Decreases in land value <10%.
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M
22. Change land use?Unlikely to cause a change in land use.
L
M
23. Increase harvest costs?The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat. They can grow 25m by 7 m (PFAF 19972000). Pregnant cows that consume large amounts of ponderosa pine needles during cold spells show an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive anomalies (USU 2002). Minor increase in cost of harvesting – e.g. slightly more time or labour is required.
ML
M
24. Disease host/vector?Notably susceptible to honey fungus (PFAF 1997-2000). Several diseases attack ponderosa pine roots (Oliver and Ryker undated). Provides host to minor (or common) pests or diseases.
MH
M


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Successful natural regeneration is thought to be the result of the chance combination of a heavy seed crop and favourable weather during the next growing season – Moisture stress reduces seed germination. Seeds do not germinate until the soil is continuously warm and moist (Oliver and Ryker undated). Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?Found in a variety of soils from sea level to 2800 metres, though mainly inland and in drier areas, deep well-drained soils. Seedlings strongly dislike growing in the shade (PFAF 1997-2000). Seedlings are damaged and killed by frosts (Oliver and Ryker undated). Full sun, not shade tolerant (NDSU undated). Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?Grass and shrub presence/ competition clearly have a negative effect on seedling establishment (Oliver and Ryker undated). Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops or in well-established pastures.
MH
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Tree (USU 2002). Other.
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H
5. Allelopathic properties?The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat Some allelopathic effects (PFAF 1997-2000). Minor properties.
ML
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Ponderosa pine is unpalatable to domestic livestock. When herbaceous vegetation is sparse, however, livestock may browse ponderosa pine enough to slow or stop seedling recruitment (USU 2002). Consumed and recovers slowly. Reproduction strongly inhibited by herbivory.
ML
MH
7. Normal growth rate?Grows at a medium rate (PFAF 1997-2000). Growth rate equal to the same life form.
M
MH
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Tolerates drought, requires well drained soil, cannot grow in shade, and doesn’t tolerate maritime exposure (PFAF 1997-2000). Full sun, not shade tolerant, prefers well drained soils, tolerates drought (NDSU undated). Annual extremes are from -40 to 43C. Larger trees possess thick bark, which offers effective protection from fire damage (Oliver and Ryker undated). - Tolerant of at least one, susceptible to at least two.
L
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemFlowers are monoecious, not self fertile (PFAF 1997-2000). Does not reproduce naturally by vegetative methods (Oliver and Ryker undated). Sexual (self and cross-pollination).
ML
H
10. Number of propagules produced?In a good seed year as many as 852,050 seeds per hectare may reach the ground, 70 seeds per cone. (Oliver and Ryker undated). Stocking rate estimate is approx. 500 trees per hectare (NZFFA 2005). 1000-2000.
MH
H
11. Propagule longevity?No information.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?Trees live 300-600 years, seed production commences when the tree is about 20 years old (PFAF 1997-2000). Mature plant produces viable propagules for 10 years or more
H
H
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Seed production commences when the tree is about 20 years old (PFAF 1997-2000). Greater than 5 years to reach sexual maturity
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H
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Gravity & wind dispersal with only 8 percent of seeds dispersed to 120 m (Oliver and Ryker undated). Ponderosa pine seeds are not disseminated naturally over extensive distances. Very light wind dispersed seeds.
H
M
15. How far do they disperse?Gravity & wind dispersal with only 8 percent of seeds dispersed to 120 m. Ponderosa pine seeds are not disseminated naturally over extensive distances. In central Oregon, seed-fall at 120 m was only 8 percent (Oliver and Ryker undated). Very few to none will disperse to one kilometre, most 20-200 metres.
ML
MH


References

CRC (1998) Catchment CRC: Forest Hydrology Program. Available at http://www.catchment.crc.org.au/projects/projects9799/F03.pdf (verified 15 June 2009)

Kocher S (undated) University of California. Why does ponderosa pine grow here? Available at http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/departments/espm/extension/PONDEROS.HTM (verified 15 June 2009).

NDSU (undated) North Dakota State University Trees Handbook. Available at http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/trees/handbook/th-3-169.pdf (verified 14 July 2009).

NZFFA (2005) New Zealand Farm Forestry Association. Available at http://www.nzffa.org.nz/pdf/p_radiata-6_05.pdf (verified 15 June 2009).

Oliver WW, Ryker RA (2009) US Forest Service. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/pinus/ponderosa.htm (verified 15 June 2009).

PFAF (1997-2000). Plants for a future. Pinus ponderosa. Available at http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pinus+ponderosa (verified 15 June 2009).

USU (2002) Utah State University. Ponderosa pine. Available at http://extension.usu.edu/range/Woody/ponderosapine.htm (verified 15 June 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 15 June 2009).

Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni (verified 26 March 2009).

EIS: Environmental Information System (2006) Parks Victoria.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 16 June 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 16 June 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 16 June 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 26 March 2009).


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