Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit
Common name(s):

leucaena

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

Occurs in: agricultural areas, natural forests, planted forests, range/grasslands, scrub/shrublands, urban areas, riverine, semi-natural, disturbed and degraded habitats. Not known to invade undisturbed closed forest. Tolerates rainfall from 500-3500 mm and strongly seasonal (6-8 month dry season) climates (Hughes 2006). Essentially a tropical species requiring warm temperatures (25C to 30C). Threatens most coastal wetlands and in inland areas. Common in orchards. L. leucocephala ssp. glabrata has been planted for pasture production in the Ord River Irrigation Area. Found on coastal cliffs and mangrove edges in Darwin. Occurs in wetlands, moist woodlands and rocky headlands. Heavy frosts will kill all above ground growth, with 0% tree survival after one day of -10C, trees often resprout the following summer. Leucaena grows on a wide variety of soils, including volcanic soils. Adult trees can survive intermittent waterlogging, seedlings cannot. A degree of salt tolerance can be seen by growth on the edge of saltwater creeks, frontal dunes and near salt scalds. Waterlogged trees may develop aerial roots to increase air intake into the root system (Walton 2003). Can extend roots 5 m to exploit underground water. In shallow duplex soils, roots have been observed to grow laterally at 30 cm depth due to an impermeable clay layer (Shelton and Brewbaker undated). “Invaded habitats: Coastal heath- and scrubland” (Weber 2003).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; swampy scrub; freshwater wetland (permanent); treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; freshwater wetland (ephemeral); saline wetland

Colours indicate possibility of Leucaena leucocephala infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of leucaena leucocephala
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible” (Hughes 2006). “It is in everyone’s interest for concerted efforts to be made to keep this conflict plant within the fences where is has a use and out of our creeklines and infrastructure where it is nothing but a pest (Butler 2005).
Major impediment to access waterways and machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
M
2. Reduce tourism?“It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible” (Hughes 2006). “It is in everyone’s interest for concerted efforts to be made to keep this conflict plant within the fences where is has a use and out of our creeklines and infrastructure where it is nothing but a pest (Butler 2005).
Major impact on recreation. Weeds obvious to most visitors, with visitor response complaints and a major reduction in visitors.
H
M
3. Injurious to people?“Thornless… Other uses include…the use of young leaves and seeds as vegetables for human consumption. Young green pods can be split open and the fresh immature seeds eaten raw or cooked. Only small amounts can be eaten in this way because of the presence in seed and young growth of the toxic amino acid mimosine” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
If not cautious and prepared properly, may still be toxic at most times of the year.
MH
ML
4. Damage to cultural sites?“Found near wetlands and riverine sites in Halls Creek, Kununurra (station homesteads and creeks)…This species also makes an impact on indigenous communities- a project at Maningrida rehabilitated ‘Djomi’, a major sacred site infested with leucaena and other weeds” (Walton 2003). “This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants… It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006). A deep-rooted species which can extend its roots 5 m to exploit underground water. In shallow duplex soils, roots have been observed to branch and grow laterally at only 30 cm depth due to an impermeable clay layer” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
May cause major structural damage to site, and obliteration of the heritage/cultural feature.
H
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Occurs in riverine habitats (Hughes 2006). Threatens most coastal wetlands and in inland areas. L. leucocphala ssp. glabrata has been planted for pasture production in the Ord River Irrigation Area. Found on coastal cliffs and mangrove edges in Darwin. Occurs in wetlands. Adult trees can survive intermittent water-logging, seedlings cannot. A degree of salt tolerance can be seen by growth on the edge of saltwater creeks. Waterlogged trees may develop aerial roots to increase air intake into the root system (Walton 2003).
Known to be in aquatic habitats but no information describes possible affects.
M
L
6. Impact water quality?Occurs in riverine habitats (Hughes 2006). Threatens most coastal wetlands and in inland areas. L. leucocphala ssp. glabrata has been planted for pasture production in the Ord River Irrigation Area. Found on coastal cliffs and mangrove edges in Darwin. Occurs in wetlands. Adult trees can survive intermittent water-logging, seedlings cannot. A degree of salt tolerance can be seen by growth on the edge of saltwater creeks. Waterlogged trees may develop aerial roots to increase air intake into the root system (Walton 2003).
Known to be in aquatic habitats but no information describes possible affects.
M
L
7. Increase soil erosion?“Planting for mine rehabilitation and sand binding…Modes of spread include water; deliberate spread for…soil stabilisation” (Walton 2003). “Serve as erosion control on steep slopes” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?“It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006). “Leucaena is a perennial, non-climbing, erect, thornless shrub or small tree, 5-10 m (rarely 20 m) tall” (Walton 2003).
Biomass may slightly decrease.
MH
ML
9. Change fire regime?“Leucaena is capable of producing a large volume of a medium-light hardwood for fuel (specific gravity of 0.5-0.75) with low moisture and a high heating value…Leucaena hedges are useful as windbreaks and firebreaks, the latter due to the suppression of understorey grass growth” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
May greatly change the frequency and intensity of fire risk.
H
ML
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Shallow Sands Woodland (V); CMA = Wimmera; Bioregion =Wimmera;
H CLIMATE potential.
“It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006).Occurs in: natural forests, range/grasslands, scrub/shrublands, urban areas, riverine, semi-natural, disturbed and degraded habitats. Tolerates rainfall from 500-3500 mm and strongly seasonal (6-8 month dry season) climates (Hughes 2006). Threatens most coastal wetlands and in inland areas. Leucaena grows on a wide variety of soils. A can be seen growing on the edge of frontal dunes. (Walton 2003). Can extend roots 5 m to exploit underground water (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all species within a strata layer.
H
MH
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Riparian Scrub (D); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion =Glenelg Plain;
H CLIMATE potential.
“It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006).Occurs in riverine habitats. (Hughes 2006). L. leucocphala ssp. glabrata has been planted for pasture production in the Ord River Irrigation Area. Found in mangrove edges in Darwin. Occurs in wetlands and moist woodlands. Adult trees can survive intermittent water-logging, seedlings cannot. Waterlogged trees may develop aerial roots to increase air intake into the root system (Walton 2003).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all species within a strata layer.
H
MH
(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (LC); CMA =Wimmera; Bioregion =Wimmera;
H CLIMATE potential.
“It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006). “Invaded habitats: Coastal heath- and scrubland” (Weber 2003). Occurs in: natural forests, range/grasslands, scrub/shrublands habitats. (Hughes 2006). Threatens most coastal wetlands and in inland areas. Leuceana grows on a wide variety of soils (Walton 2003). Can extend roots 5 m to exploit underground water (Shelton and Brewbaker, no date).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all species within a strata layer.
H
MH
11. Impact on structure?“This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants… It can form dense monospecific thickets which are reported to be replacing native forest in some areas and threatening endemic species of conservation concern in some areas” (Hughes 2006). “May have suppressed the regeneration of native species” (Biosecurity QLD 2007). “In the Erap Valley of Papua New Guinea it forms monospecific stands in river valleys, replacing native riparian vegetation…Grows in disturbed wet areas, but will not be the dominant species” (Walton 2003).
Major effects on all layers. Forms monoculture; no other strata/layers present.
H
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?“Forms dense thickets, hindering the movement of wildlife and excluding all other plants” (Biosecurity QLD 2007). “Leucaena leucocephala ssp. Leucocphala forms dense monospecific thickets, which, although relatively open, are often free of other vegetation and threaten endangered species…Without good state-wide mapping it was impossible within this study to correlate leucaena infestations with possible impacts on rare and threatened species or ecosystems” (Walton 2003).
More information needed.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?“Forms dense thickets, hindering the movement of wildlife and excluding all other plants” (Biosecurity QLD 2007). “Leucaena leucocephala ssp. Leucocphala forms dense monospecific thickets, which, although relatively open, are often free of other vegetation and threaten endangered species…Without good state-wide mapping it was impossible within this study to correlate leucaena infestations with possible impacts on rare and threatened species or ecosystems” (Walton 2003).
More information needed.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?“Forms dense thickets, hindering the movement of wildlife and excluding all other plants” (Biosecurity QLD 2007).
Reduction in habitat for fauna species, but not to local extinction.
MH
M
15. Benefits fauna?“Although it is not known if flying foxes eat the seed, they have taken to roosting in these trees … In Brisbane, an animal vector- possibly possums- is proposed as responsible for the spread of leucaena into city suburbs, although, the species has not been determined” (Walton 2003).
Provides an important alternative place of harbour to desirable species.
ML
M
16. Injurious to fauna?“Plants contain mimosine and are toxic to stock” (Weeds Aust. No date). “In 1982, the DHP-degrading bacteria were introduced into Australia, removing the toxic effects of high leucaena diets to cattle… Producers without this bacterium may see negative impacts from browsing; for example, horses may lose their hair” The toxin mimosine is found in leucaena, and its by-product, 3 hydroxy-4-1 H pyridone (DHP), is created during animal chewing. Although toxic to non-ruminants, this substance does not deter ruminants from eating the plant. DHP accumulates and results in loss of appetite, goitre, and related symptoms, including hair loss. Ingestion of the DHP-degrading bacterium Synergistes jonesii is required in grazing animals to prevent leucaena toxicity (Walton 2003).
Mildly toxic, may cause fauna to lose condition.
ML
M
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“Animals including birds, rodents and cattle may be seed vectors…Cattle, rabbits, hares, marsupials, termites and grasshoppers have all been recorded as destroying seedlings if they are allowed to eat them before the plants are well established. Goats have been shown to control koa haole [(another of leucaena’s common names)] in Hawaii” (Walton 2003). “Results from studies on possible use of foliage from tree species like…Leucaena leucocephala…are encouraging. These species have low water requirements and are palatable to sheep and goats” (Barrett-Lennard et al. 1986).
Supplies food for > 1 major pest species at crucial times of the year (eg. heavy berry load or continual food throughout the year).
H
M
18. Provides harbour?“Although it is not known if flying foxes eat the seed, they have taken to roosting in these trees” (Walton 2003).
Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest species, but may provide for minor pest species.
MH
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“Highly nutritios for ruminants…Leucaena foliage is mulched into the soil to enhance yields of inter-row crops” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated). “Use of this species as a summer feed has resulted in a change in land use for this property. Rather than carrying stock year round, the property is generally destocked over winter, allowing grass regrowth. In effect, the property has been turned into an agistment property, as the high growth rate possible on the leucaena-grass system allows rapid turn-off of stock. Significant increases in productivity have been noted, with the Downs country stocking rates increasing from 1 beast/15 ha to 1 beast/5 ha, and Brigalow shrub country, from 1 beast/8 ha to 1 beast/4 ha” (Walton 2003).
Information indicates that impacts may not be negative. Little or negligible affect on quantity of yield.
L
ML
20. Impact quality?“Seed contaminated topsoil… or in contaminated hay” (Walton 2003).
Possibly a minor impact in quality of produce (e.g. <5%).
ML
M
21. Affect land value?“Using a registered herbicide, control costs for treatment of dense leucaena infestations are estimated to be about $1,000 per hectare…removal of an 8 ha infestation cost more than $14,600 over 4 years ($7,000 in bulldozer costs for the initial control and a further $3,000 within the first year to control regrowth)…Accidental spread by vehicles machinery, mud on machinery; or in contaminated hay- although, the risk from most of these vectors is low…If control activities outside plantings on roadsides and along riparian areas are undertaken, they are unlikely to require more than 1 man-day per annum per property… Use of this species as a summer feed has resulted in a change in land use for this property. Rather than carrying stock year round, the property is generally destocked over winter, allowing grass regrowth. In effect, the property has been turned into an agistment property, as the high growth rate possible on the leucaena-grass system allows rapid turn-off of stock. Significant increases in productivity have been noted, with the Downs country stocking rates increasing from 1 beast/15 ha to 1 beast/5 ha, and Brigalow shrub country, from 1 beast/8 ha to 1 beast/4 ha” (Walton 2003).
Information too conflicting; depends on what buyer intends to do with the land.
M
L
22. Change land use?“Use of this species as a summer feed has resulted in a change in land use for this property. Rather than carrying stock year round, the property is generally destocked over winter, allowing grass regrowth. In effect, the property has been turned into an agistment property, as the high growth rate possible on the leucaena-grass system allows rapid turn-off of stock. Significant increases in productivity have been noted, with the Downs country stocking rates increasing from 1 beast/15 ha to 1 beast/5 ha, and Brigalow shrub country, from 1 beast/8 ha to 1 beast/4 ha” (Walton 2003).
Some change, but no serious alteration of either agricultural return. Affects more the visual rather than intrinsic agricultural value.
ML
M
23. Increase harvest costs?“Using a registered herbicide, control costs for treatment of dense leucaena infestations are estimated to be about $1,000 per hectare…removal of an 8 ha infestation cost more than $14,600 over 4 years ($7,000 in bulldozer costs for the initial control and a further $3,000 within the first year to control regrowth)…Accidental spread by vehicles machinery, mud on machinery; or in contaminated hay- although, the risk from most of these vectors is low…If control activities outside plantings on roadsides and along riparian areas are undertaken, they are unlikely to require more than 1 man-day per annum per property” (Walton 2003).
Could be considered a major increase in time and labour to control to be able to harvest.
H
M
24. Disease host/vector?“The long soft scale, Coccus longulus, is a worldwide pest found on a wide range of horticultural crops- including custard apple, lychee, fig and many ornamentals” (Walton 2003).
Host to major and severe disease or pest of important agricultural produce.
H
ML


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Leucaena is a tropical species requiring warm temperatures (25-30C day temperatures) for optimum growth. At higher latitudes and at elevated tropical latitudes growth is reduced. Brewbaker et al. (1985) suggests that temperature limitations occur: above 100 m elevation within 10C Latitude of the equator and above 500 m elevation within the 10-25C latitude zone…Leucaena growth is strongly seasonal…High degree of hard seed due to an impermeable waxy coat which must be broken before the seed will imbibe water and germinate. Scarification to break this dormancy usually involves treatment with hot water (boiling water for 4 s) or acid” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
ML
2. Establishment requirements?“Having moderate shade tolerance, leucaena can grow under its own canopy, with only 35% of full illumination, and under lantana. It is not able to grow under the dense shade of undisturbed forest” (Walton 2003). “Shading reduces the growth of leucaena although this plant has moderate tolerance of reduced light when compared with other tree legumes. Leucaena seeds will germinate and establish satisfactorily under leucaena hedgerows or under the weed species Lantana camara” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
M
3. How much disturbance is required?“Of more concern in this survey was that 11 councils reported leucaena in undisturbed natural habitats” (Walton 2003). “Invaded habitats: Coastal heath- and scrubland” (Weber 2003).
Establishes in healthy and undisturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. heathland).
H
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala] is a tropical legume” (Butler 2005).
Leguminous plant.
MH
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?“It has been successfully grown under coconuts in Bali as a support for vanilla… Leucaena foliage is mulched into the soil to enhance yields of inter-row crops” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated). Not noted in Rice (1984).
None.
L
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“The cost of using cattle to graze the area was $28/ha. Although reducing seedling recruitment, this treatment was not able to stop seed set, as the trees were taller than the cattle could reach” (Walton 2003).
Consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering /seed production under moderate herbivory pressure (where moderate = normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
MH
M
7. Normal growth rate?“A number of fast growing trees of economic value have been introduced for the establishment of plantations under saline conditions [including] Leucena leucocephala” (Sandhu & Qureshi 1986). “Seedlings are not naturally slow growing and have been shown to reach 2m in height within 14 weeks when growing in a fertile soil well supplied with water and nutrients” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“The weediness of Leucaena leucocephala ssp. leucocphala is [in part] attributed to its…ability to re-sprout after cutting or burning, [and] drought tolerance…Leucaena is known to be intolerant to soils with…high salinity…and water-logging. Adult trees can survive intermittent water-logging, although seedlings cannot…A degree of salt tolerance of leucaena can be seen by growth on the edge of saltwater creeks,…frontal dunes…and near salt scalds waterlogged trees may develop aerial roots to increase air intake into the root system… Cool fires thicken up stands due to coppicing, but a hot fire will kill adult plants” (Walton 2003). “Trees of economic value [that] have been introduced for the establishment of plantations under saline conditions [include] Leucaena leucocephala [which] had survival rates of more than 85% in saline soils” (Sandhu & Qureshi 1986). “Leucaena is not tolerant of even light frosts which cause leaf to be shed. Heavy frosts will kill all above ground growth, although the crowns survive and will regrow vigorously in the following summer with multiple branches…Very drought tolerant even during establishment” (Shelton and Brewbaker undated).
Highly tolerant to drought, quite tolerant of fire, salinity and water-logging. Not tolerant to frost.
Not highly tolerant to two but tolerant to at least two and susceptible to at least one.
ML
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“These flowers are largely self-fertilised and self-compatible…The species does not need specialist pollinators, being cross-pollinated by a range of generalist insects” (Walton 2003).
Sexual (self and cross pollination).
ML
M
10. Number of propagules produced?“The early Queensland study by Hutton and Gray (1959) showed that two-year-old Hawaiian strains (Leucaena leucocephala ssp. leucocephala) produced 277-388 pods (3,974-6,058 seeds) per plant, while the strains El Salvador and Peru (Leucaena leucocephala ssp. glabrata) produced 545 pods (8,666 seeds)… In his thesis, Mullen (2001) noted that, at one site, 50 trees of a ssp. glabrata variety produced 40 kg of seed in the second year of growth. With an average of 22,000 seeds per kilogram, this would suggest a seed production of 17 600 seeds per plant at this site” (Walton 2003).
Greater than 2,000 seeds.
H
M
11. Propagule longevity?“The soil seed bank can remain viable for at least 10-20 years after seed dispersal” (Hughes 2006). “The soil seed bank can remain viable for at least 10 years after removal of seeding trees” (Walton 2003).
Greater than 25% of seeds can survive over 20 years in the soil.
H
M
12. Reproductive period?“Trees can live from 20 years to more than 50… In Botswana, Leucaena leucocephala flowered from 2-4 months after field planting…“The early Queensland study by Hutton and Gray (1959) showed that two-year-old Hawaiian strains (Leucaena leucocephala ssp. leucocephala) produced 277-388 pods (3,974-6,058 seeds) per plant” (Walton 2003).
It is assumed that flowers will produce seeds from first flowering. 50-2 months= 49 years and 10 months.
Mature plant produces viable propagules for 10 years or more.
H
M
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“The genus Leucaena has a short juvenile phase for a woody species in that it can commence flowering 3-4 months after the planting. Plant maturity of Leucaena leucocephala follows this pattern. In Botswana, Leucaena leucocephala flowered from 2-4 months after field planting” (Walton 2003).
It is assumed that flowers will produce seeds from first flowering.
Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules in under a year.
H
M
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“Animals including birds, rodents and cattle may be seed vectors” (Walton 2003). “Transported by water but may also be carried on machinery or by animals” (Butler 2005).
Bird dispersed seeds and has edible fruit that is readily eaten by highly mobile animals.
H
M
15. How far do they disperse?“Animals including birds, rodents and cattle may be seed vectors” (Walton 2003). “Transported by water but may also be carried on machinery or by animals” (Butler 2005).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
M


References

Butler D. (2005) Leucaena Jumping the Fence! Weed Spotters Newsletter No. 2. Environmental Protection Agency (Queensland); Department of Environment and Resource Management, Queensland.

Hughes (2006) Leucaena leucocephala (tree). Available at: http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=23&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN (verified 22/09/2009).

Land Protection (Invasive Plants and Animals) Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland Government (2007) Fact sheet Leucaena. Available at: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Leucaena-PP85.pdf (verified 22/09/2009).

Rice EL. (1984) Allelopathy. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando.

Sandhu GR and Qureshi RH. (1986) “Salt Affected Soils of Pakistan and Their Utilization.” Pp. 105- 113. In: Barrett-Lennard EG, Malcolm CV, Stern WR and Wilkins SM (Ed's.) Forage and Fuel Production From Salt Affected Wasteland. Elsevier; Amsterdam, Oxford, New York and Tokyo.

Shelton H.M. and Brewbaker J.L. (no date) Leucaena leucocephala- The Most Widely Used Forage Tree Legume Available at:
http://www.betuco.be/agroforestry/Leucaena%20leucocephala.pdf (verified 17/09/2009).

Walton C.S. (2003) Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) in Queensland: Pest Status Review Series- Land Protection. Queensland Government, Natural Resources and Mines. Brisbane.

Weber E. (2003) Invasive Plant Species of the World: A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.

Weeds Australia (No date) Weed Identification- Leucaena leucophala. Available at: http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&ibra=all&card=T20 (verified 05/11/2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 14/05/2009).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 14/05/2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 14/05/2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 14/05/2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 14/05/2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 26/03/2009).


Feedback

Do you have additional information about this plant that will improve the quality of the assessment?
If so, we would value your contribution. Click on the link to go to the feedback form.
Page top