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Lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Vinca minor L.
Common name(s):

lesser periwinkle
map showing the present distribution of vinca minor
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Requires part shade and ample moisture. Hardy to -12C, fairly drought resistant, adapted to mild climates (Desert Tropicals 2005). Lesser periwinkle can grow in full, semi shaded areas and areas with no shade (Aussie Gardening undated). Vulnerable to frost. Established plants are drought tolerant (Aussie Gardening, undated). Low salinity tolerance (USDA 2009). Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; wet forest; rainforest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains; woodland; ironbark/box

Colours indicate possibility of Vinca minor infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of vinca minor
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre (Aussie Gardening undated).
- Low nuisance value. Impedes individual access, unable to walk to waterways.
ML
ML
2. Reduce tourism?Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre (Aussie Gardening undated). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Minor effects to aesthetics.
ML
M
3. Injurious to people?Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). There is no evidence that this species is harmful to humans.
- No effect
L
ML
4. Damage to cultural sites?Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre (Aussie Gardening undated). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Moderate visual effect.
ML
ML
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre (Aussie Gardening undated). Vinca minor is not an aquatic weed, and its low habit would not impact on water flows.
- Little impact on water flow.
L
ML
6. Impact water quality?Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre (Aussie Gardening undated). Vinca minor is not an aquatic weed, and its low habit would not impact on water quality.
- No noticeable impacts on dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
ML
7. Increase soil erosion?‘A very good ground cover for covering steep banks and shady places spreading rapidly and forming a dense cover within two years. It is less dense on dry exposed sites (Aussie Gardening undated).
- Moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
ML
ML
8. Reduce biomass?‘A very good ground cover for covering steep banks and shady places spreading rapidly and forming a dense cover within two years. It is less dense on dry exposed sites (Aussie Gardening undated).
- Biomass may increase.
L
ML
9. Change fire regime?High fire tolerance (USDA 2009). Forms a dense ground cover within two years (Aussie Gardening undated). Groundcovers with fleshy leaves, such as Vinca minor can help slow spread of fire, especially if they are watered (Ellefson and Winger 2004).
- Small or negligible effect on fire risk.
L
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Alluvial Terraces Herb Rich Woodland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Victorian Volcanic Plains;
VH CLIMATE potential.
-Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer/strata.
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Wet Sands Thicket (R); CMA = Corangamite; Bioregion = Otway Ranges;
VH CLIMATE potential.
-Very little displacement of any indigenous species, sparse and scattered infestations.
L
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Grassy Dry Forest (LC); CMA = Port Phillip Western Port; Bioregion = Highlands Southern Fall
VH CLIMATE potential.
- Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
MH
H
11. Impact on structure?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008). It can aggressively out-compete native ground layer species.
- Minor effects to >60% of the layers or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Impacts on threatened flora are unknown.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Impacts on threatened fauna are unknown.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Minor effects to fauna species; minor reduction in habitat/food/shelter.
ML
ML
15. Benefits fauna?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Provides very little assistance to desirable species.
H
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?No evidence of injurious characteristics.
- No effect.
L
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?‘Members of this genus are rarely troubled by browsing deer or rabbits (Aussie Gardening undated). Low palatability (USDA 2009).
- Provides minimal food for pest species.
L
MH
18. Provides harbour?Grows to a height of 20cm and spreads up to one metre. Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated).
- Doesn’t provide harbour for major pest species, but may provide harbour for minor pests.
ML
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004). Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008). No evidence suggests Vinca minor is an agricultural weed, therefore not expected to impact yields.
- Little or negligible impact on quantity of yields.
L
M
20. Impact quality?No evidence suggests that Vinca minor is a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely that it will contaminate agricultural produce.
- Little or negligible impact on quality of produce.
L
M
21. Affect land value?Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004). Once established it will swamp out smaller plants (Aussie Gardening undated). Habit is low, mat-forming ground cover (UConn 2001). Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008). No evidence suggests that Vinca minor is a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely that it will contaminate agricultural produce; however as this species forms monocultures and is capable of displacing ground flora, it may instigate some change in land use, and therefore value/productivity of land.
- Decreases land value <10%.
ML
M
22. Change land use?Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008). No evidence suggests that Vinca minor is a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to instigate a change in land use, although some change may occur.
- Some change but no serious alteration of either agricultural return. Affects more the visual rather than the intrinsic agricultural value.
ML
M
23. Increase harvest costs?Forms a dense monotypic ground cover that displaces and excludes most other species (Texas Invasives 2008). No evidence suggests that Vinca minor is a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to instigate a change in land use, although some change may occur.
- Little or no host.
L
M
24. Disease host/vector?No serious pest or disease problems (MOBOT 2009). Brunt et al. 1996 has not tested Vinca minor as a host/vector for disease. Smith and Davis (1986) concluded that Vinca minor is a natural host for cucumber mosaic virus.
- Provides host to a minor (or common) virus.
MH
MH


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?‘Grows roots whenever stem touches the ground’ (Desert Tropicals 2005).
- Opportunistic germinator can germinate or strike/set root at any time whenever water is available.
H
M
2. Establishment requirements?Requires part shade and ample moisture (Desert Tropicals 2005). Lesser periwinkle can grow in full, semi shaded areas and areas with no shade (Aussie Gardening undated).
- Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space, direct sunlight and rainfall).
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?Occasionally found carpeting the ground in woods or abandoned gardens (Skye Flora 2004).
- Establishes in highly disturbed natural ecosystems.
ML
ML
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Creeping evergreen vine (Texas Invasives 2008).
- Creeper
ML
M
5. Allelopathic properties?Not a known allellopath (USDA 2009).
- None.
L
MH
6. Tolerates herb pressure?‘Members of this genus are rarely troubled by browsing deer or rabbits (Aussie Gardening undated). Low palatability (USDA 2009).
Consumed but not preferred.
MH
M
7. Normal growth rate?Fast grower with regular water (Desert Tropicals 2005). Moderate growth rate (USDA 2009). Medium growth rate (OSU undated).
- Growth rate equal to the same life form.
M
MH
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Hardy to -12C, fairly drought resistant, adapted to mild climates (Desert Tropicals 2005). Vulnerable to frost. Established plants are drought tolerant (Aussie Gardening undated). Low salinity tolerance (USDA 2009).
- Tolerant to at least two (drought, frost), susceptible to at least one.
ML
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system‘Grows roots whenever stem touches the ground’ (Desert Tropicals 2005). ‘This species rarely if ever sets seed in Britain (Aussie Gardening undated). Not propagated by seed (USDA 2009).
- Vegetative reproduction.
MH
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?‘Grows roots whenever stem touches the ground’ (Desert Tropicals 2005). Evidence shows that Vinca minor does not reproduce via seed, therefore propagule quantities are unknown.
M
L
11. Propagule longevity?Vinca minor does not reproduce via seed, therefore propagule longevity is unknown.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?Perennial (Desert Tropicals 2005). Assumed reproductive period for a perennial is more than 3 years.
- Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
MH
ML
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Perennial (Desert Tropicals 2005). Considering life cycle, it would be assumed that Vinca minor reaches reproductive maturity in under less than 5 years.
- Two to five years to reach sexual maturity, or for vegetative propagules to become separate individuals.
ML
ML
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?‘Grows roots whenever stem touches the ground’ (Desert Tropicals 2005). Not propagated by seed (USDA 2009). Due to vegetative reproduction only, it could be assumed that spreading stem fragments via attachment and accidental human dispersal are the only methods.
- Propagules spread by attachment or accidental human dispersal.
ML
M
15. How far do they disperse?‘Grows roots whenever stem touches the ground’ (Desert Tropicals 2005). Not propagated by seed (USDA 2009). Due to vegetative reproduction only, it could be assumed that spreading stem fragments via attachment and accidental human dispersal are the only methods.
- Very few to none will disperse to one kilometre, most 20-200 metres.
ML
M


References

Aussie Gardening (undated) Vinca minor. Available at http://www.aussiegardening.com.au/findplants/plant/Vinca_minor (verified 22 May 2009).

Czarapata EJ (2005) Invasive plants of the upper Midwest: an illustrated guide to their identification and control. Published by Univ of Wisconsin Press.

Desert Tropicals (2005). Available at http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Apocynaceae/Vinca_minor.html (verified 22 May 2009).

MOBOT (2001-2009) Vinca minor. Available at http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=U760 (verified 22 May 2009).

OSU (undated) Ohio State University Vinca minor. Available at http://hcs.osu.edu/hcs/TMI/Plantlist/vi_minor.html (verified 22 May 2009).

Skye Flora (2004) Lesser Periwinkle, Vinca minor. Available at http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/apocynaceae/vinca-minor.htm (verified 22 May 2009).

Texas Invasives (2008) http://www.texasinvasives.org/invasives_database/detail.php?symbol=VIMI2 (verified 22 May 2009).

UConn (2001) University of Connecticut Plant Database. Available at http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/campus/uconn/ever/walk10/three/vinmin.html (verified 22 May 2009).

USDA (2009) Plants Profile Vinca minor L. Available at http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VIMI2 (verified 22 May 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2008) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 28 May 2009).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 28 May 2009).

EIS: Environmental Information System (2006) Parks Victoria. (verified 28 May 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 28 May 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ verified 28 May 2009).

International Plant Names. (2005) International Plant Names Index Plant Name Search. Available at http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do (verified 28 May 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 28 May 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 28 May 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 28 May 2009).



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