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Golden aeonium (Aeonium arboreum)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Aeonium arboreum (L.) Webb & Berthel.
Common name(s):

Golden aeonium
map showing the present distribution of aeonium arboreum
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Grey sand or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997). Humid sub-tropics, principally in creek beds and forest clearings, in areas with steep (≥20%) frost-free slopes where rainfall exceeds 1500mm per year. It is found as a weed along roadsides, in abandoned cultivation areas and overgrazed pastures (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001). Closed heath, closed scrub (O’Shea & Kirkpatrick 2000). Full sun on the coast, light shade inland, hardy to 25-30F, does not tolerate long periods of freezing temperatures (SF Botanical undated). Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; swampy scrub; freshwater wetland (permanent); treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; riparian; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; freshwater wetland (ephemeral); saline wetland

Colours indicate possibility of Aeonium arboreum infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of aeonium arboreum
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).
Minimal or negligible impact (i.e. can go anywhere).
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m
2. Reduce tourism?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).
Minor effects to aesthetics.
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m
3. Injurious to people?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). No evidence of injurious characteristics or toxicity.
No effect, not prickles, no injuries.
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ml
4. Damage to cultural sites?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Grey sand, or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Originates from Mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Potential moderate visual effects.
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m
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Aeonium arboreum is not an aquatic or riparian weed.
Little or negligible impact on water flow.
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l
6. Impact water quality?Aeonium arboreum is not an aquatic or riparian weed.
No noticeable impacts on dissolved O2 or light levels
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l
7. Increase soil erosion?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).
Insufficient information.
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l
8. Reduce biomass?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).
Biomass may increase.
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m
9. Change fire regime?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003).
Insufficient information.
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l
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Plains Grassland/ Plains Grassy Woodland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion =Victorian Volcanic Plain; VH CLIMATE potential.
Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Grey sand or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997). Originates from Mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer (e.g ground cover, shrubs etc.)
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h
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Riparian Shrubland (R); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion =East Gippsland Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Grey sand or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Originates from Mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse/scattered infestations.
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h
(c) low value EVCEVC = Grassy Dry Forest (LC); CMA =East Gippsland; Bioregion = East Gippsland Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Grey sand or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Originates from Mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, shrubs etc.)
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h
11. Impact on structure?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Grey sand or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Originates from Mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Minor or negligible effect on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the layers.
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m
12. Effect on threatened flora?Impacts on threatened flora are unknown.
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l
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Impacts on threatened fauna are unknown.
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14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Fleshy green stems (WC 2005). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
No fauna affected due to fauna not coexisting within weed area or strata.
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m
15. Benefits fauna?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Fleshy green stems (WC 2005). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Provides some assistance in either food or shelter for desirable species.
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m
16. Injurious to fauna?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Fleshy green stems (WC 2005). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
No effect.
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m
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Fleshy green stems (WC 2005). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Provides minimal food for pest species.
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ml
18. Provides harbour?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Fleshy green stems (WC 2005). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997). Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pests, may provide for minor pests (e.g. blackbirds, environmental insect pests).
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m
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Insufficient.
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l
20. Impact quality?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Little or negligible impact on quality of yield.
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m
21. Affect land value?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Little or none.
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m
22. Change land use?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997)
Little or none.
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m
23. Increase harvest costs?Succulent, sprawling shrub, to 0.35 m high (Spooner 2003). Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Little or none.
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24. Disease host/vector?No evidence of disease host.
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Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Originates from mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances for germination.
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m
2. Establishment requirements?Originates from mediterranean North Africa. Tolerates full sun to partial shade (WC 2005).
Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space, bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
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3. How much disturbance is required?Grey sand, or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Garden escape on tips and beaches (Hussey et al. 1997).
Establishes in highly disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. roadsides, wildlife corridors or areas which have greater impact by humans such as tourist areas or campsites).
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Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Succulent, sprawling shrub (Spooner 2003).
Other.
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m
5. Allelopathic properties?None mentioned.
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6. Tolerates herb pressure?Unknown.
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l
7. Normal growth rate?Unknown.
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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Grey sand, or sandy loam, calcareous creamy sand. Sand dunes, road verges (Spooner 2003). Tolerates temperatures down to 5C (WC 2005). Does not tolerate long periods of freezing temperatures, useful for drought tolerant plantings (SF Botanical 2009). Drought and frost tender (Bodkin 1986).
Tolerant of two, susceptible to at least one.
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m
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemPropagate from seeds or cuttings (Bodkin 1986).
Both sexual and vegetative reproduction.
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m
10. Number of propagules produced?Unknown.
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l
11. Propagule longevity?Unknown.
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12. Reproductive period?Monocarpic (SF Botanical 2009). Perennial (Lazarides et al. 1997).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10years.
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m
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Perennial (Lazarides et al. 1997).
2-5 years to reach sexual maturity.
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?A. arboreum may only be limited in their impact on coastal vegetation by lack of effective medium to long distance dispersal mechanisms (O’Shea & Kirkpatrick 2000).
Insufficient information.
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l
15. How far do they disperse?A. arboreum may only be limited in their impact on coastal vegetation by lack of effective medium to long distance dispersal mechanisms (O’Shea & Kirkpatrick 2000).
Very few to none will disperse to one kilometre, most 20-200m
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mh


References

Bodkin F. (1986) Encyclopaedia Botanica: The Essential Reference Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia. Angus & Robertson.

Faucon P (1998-2005) http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Crassulaceae/Aeonium_arboreum.html

Hussey BMJ, Keighery GJ, Cousens RD, Dodd J and Lloyd SG. (1997) Western Weeds. A Guide to the Weeds of Western Australia. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. Victoria Park.

Lazarides, M., Cowley, K. Hohnen, P. (1997). CSIRO Handbook of Australian Weeds. CSIRO Australia.

O’Shea EM & Kirkpatrick JB (2000) The impact of suburbanisation on remnant coastal vegetation in Hobart, Tasmania. Applied Vegetation Science 3: 243-252

Parsons WT and Cuthbertson EG. (2001) Noxious Weeds of Australia. 2nd Ed. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

SF Botanical (2009). San Francisco Botanical Garden http://www.sfbotanicalgarden.org/Gardens/bloom_08_03.shtml

Spooner A. (2003) http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/20331

WC. (2005) Wild Chicken Nature and Technology website. Available at http://www.wildchicken.com/index2.htm#nature/garden/nature_200_001.htm (verified 19 November 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH). (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre or Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 15 October 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora Information System [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 15 October 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 15 October 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 15 October 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 15 October 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 15 October 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 15 October 2009).


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