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Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Alliaria petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande
Common name(s):

garlic mustard
map of the present distribution of alliaria petiolata
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, rural/disturbed and urban areas. Alliaria petiolata prefers shade but has been found in areas with full sunlight. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. Invasion is more likely in flood plain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008). Garlic mustard is a biennial plant of deciduous woods, flood plain forests, gardens, and roadsides (CWS undated). ‘It cannot tolerate acidic soil… Garlic mustard grows in upland and flood plain forests, savannas, yards, along roadsides’ ‘unlike other plants that invade disturbed habitats, garlic mustard readily spreads into high quality forests’ (WDNR 2002).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture
seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; rainforest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; high altitude wetland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine
woodland/forest; freshwater wetland (ephemeral)

Colours indicate possibility of Alliaria petiolata infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map of the potential distribution of alliaria petiolata
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?‘Flowering plants of garlic mustard reach from 2-3 feet in height. (PCA 2009).
Minimal or negligible impact.
L
M
2. Reduce tourism?‘Leaves and stems emit the distinctive odour of onion or garlic when crushed’ (WDNR 2002).
Once introduced to an area, garlic mustard out-competes native plants by aggressively monopolising resources…wildlife are deprived of important native species which garlic mustard replaces; ‘humans are also deprived of the vibrant display of beautiful spring wildflowers (PCA 2009).
Minor effects to aesthetics and/or recreational uses.
ML
M
3. Injurious to people?No evidence.
L
L
4. Damage to cultural sites?Once introduced to an area, garlic mustard out-competes native plants by aggressively monopolising resources…wildlife are deprived of important native species which garlic mustard replaces; ‘humans are also deprived of the vibrant display of beautiful spring wildflowers (PCA 2009).
Moderate structural effect.
MH
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Grows on riverbanks and flood plains (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Although Alliaria petiolata is present in riparian zones, there is no evidence that it negatively impacts flows.
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
MH
6. Impact water quality?Grows on riverbanks and flood plains (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Although Alliaria petiolata is present in riparian zones, there is no evidence that it negatively impacts water quality.
No noticeable impacts to dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
MH
7. Increase soil erosion?Grows on riverbanks and flood plains (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed and urban areas. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. It is one of the few invasive plants that can invade and dominate the understorey of forested areas. Invasion is more likely in floodplain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008).
Moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
ML
MH
8. Reduce biomass?‘Garlic mustard invests 20.4% of its biomass in reproductive effort’ (Anderson et al. 1996). ‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002). ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009).
Biomass may increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?Grows on riverbanks and flood plains (Rebek and O’Neil 2005). Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed and urban areas. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. It is one of the few invasive plants that can invade and dominate the understorey of forested areas. Invasion is more likely in floodplain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008).
Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire risk.
ML
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Ridged Plains Mallee (E); CMA =Wimmera; Bioregion =Wimmera;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed and urban areas. Alliaria petiolata prefers shade but has been found in areas with full sunlight. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. Invasion is more likely in floodplain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008). Garlic mustard is a biennial plant of deciduous woods, floodplain forests, gardens, and roadsides, upland and flood plain forests, savannas, yards (CWS undated; WDNR 2002). ‘Unlike other plants that invade disturbed habitats, garlic mustard readily spreads into high quality forests’ (WDNR 2002). Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002) ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas’ ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009).
Minor displacement of some dominant/indicator species within any one layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs etc.).
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Warm Temperate Rainforest (D); CMA =East Gippsland; Bioregion =East Gippsland Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed and urban areas. Alliaria petiolata prefers shade but has been found in areas with full sunlight. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. Invasion is more likely in floodplain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008). Garlic mustard is a biennial plant of deciduous woods, floodplain forests, gardens, and roadsides, upland and flood plain forests, savannas, yards (CWS undated; WDNR 2002). ‘Unlike other plants that invade disturbed habitats, garlic mustard readily spreads into high quality forests’ (WDNR 2002).
Minor displacement of some dominant/indicator species within any one layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs, etc.).
ML
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Lowland Forest (LC); CMA =Port Phillip and Western Port; Bioregion =Highlands- Southern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Occurs in natural forest, planted forest, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed and urban areas. Alliaria petiolata prefers shade but has been found in areas with full sunlight. It prefers moist, rich soil but is found in sand, loam, clay, limestone, and sandstone substrates. Invasion is more likely in floodplain forests, forest edges, stream banks, and other disturbed areas, such as trail edges and road sides. A. petiolata is less common on acidic soils. (ISSG 2008). Garlic mustard is a biennial plant of deciduous woods, floodplain forests, gardens, and roadsides, upland and flood plain forests, savannas, yards (CWS undated; WDNR 2002). ‘Unlike other plants that invade disturbed habitats, garlic mustard readily spreads into high quality forests’ (WDNR 2002).
Major displacement of some dominant or indicator species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
MH
H
11. Impact on structure?‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002) ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas’ ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009). ‘It is displacing the indigenous understorey flora’ (Anderson et al. 1996). Populations of native understorey plants have been found to decline in areas with a heavy infestation of garlic mustard, which can be as high as 20,000 seedlings/m2 (Vaughan and Berhow 1999).
Minor effect on >60% of the floral strata or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
MH
12. Effect on threatened flora?‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002) ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas…it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009). ‘It is displacing the indigenous understorey flora’ (Anderson et al. 1996). Populations of native understorey plants have been found to decline in areas with a heavy infestation of garlic mustard, which can be as high as 20,000 seedlings/m2 (Vaughan and Berhow 1999).
Impacts on threatened flora are unknown, although potential for Alliaria petiolata to displace native species, suggests high impact.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?A. petiolata negatively impacts forest communities by displacing native plant species, interfering with natural forest regeneration, and adversely affecting forest fauna (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Wildlife that depend on these early plants [that garlic mustard is competing with] for foliage, pollen, nectar, fruits, seeds and roots, and are deprived of these essential food sources when garlic mustard replaces them. (PCA 2009). ‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002). ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas’ ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009). ‘It is displacing the indigenous understorey flora’ (Anderson et al. 1996).
Populations of native understorey plants have been found to decline in areas with a heavy infestation of garlic mustard, which can be as high as 20,000 seedlings/m2 (Vaughan and Berhow 1999).
Impacts on threatened fauna are unknown, although potential for Alliaria petiolata to displace native species, suggests high impact.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?A. petiolata negatively impacts forest communities by displacing native plant species, interfering with natural forest regeneration, and adversely affecting forest fauna (Rebek and O’Neil 2005). Wildlife that depend on these early plants [that garlic mustard is competing with] for foliage, pollen, nectar, fruits, seeds and roots, and are deprived of these essential food sources when garlic mustard replaces them. (PCA 2009). ‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002) ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas’ ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009).0‘It is displacing the indigenous understorey flora’ (Anderson et al. 1996). Populations of native understorey plants have been found to decline in areas with a heavy infestation of garlic mustard, which can be as high as 20,000 seedlings/m2 (Vaughan and Berhow 1999).
Reduction in habitat for fauna species, leading to reduction in numbers of individuals but not to local extinction.
MH
MH
15. Benefits fauna?A. petiolata negatively impacts forest communities by displacing native plant species, interfering with natural forest regeneration, and adversely affecting forest fauna (Rebek and O’Neil 2005). Wildlife that depend on these early plants [that garlic mustard is competing with] for foliage, pollen, nectar, fruits, seeds and roots, and are deprived of these essential food sources when garlic mustard replaces them. ‘Flowering plants of garlic mustard reach from 2-3 feet in height. (PCA 2009).
Provides very little assistance to desirable species.
H
MH
16. Injurious to fauna?No evidence.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Wildlife that depend on these early plants [that garlic mustard is competing with] for foliage, pollen, nectar, fruits, seeds and roots, and are deprived of these essential food sources when garlic mustard replaces them. (PCA 2009).
Provides minimal food for pest animals.
M
M
18. Provides harbor?‘Flowering plants of garlic mustard reach from 2-3 feet in height. (PCA 2009).
A. petiolata negatively impacts forest communities by displacing native plant species, interfering with natural forest regeneration, and adversely affecting forest fauna (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Doesn’t provide harbour for major pest species, but may provide harbour for minor pest species.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?‘Garlic mustard grows in upland and floodplain forests, savannahs, yards, along roadsides, occasionally in full sun’ (WDNR 2002). ‘Invades forested communities…’ (Nuzzo 1999). ‘Currently invading forested areas’ (Forrest Meekins & McCarthy 1999).
No evidence suggests that Alliaria petiolata is common in agricultural environments, therefore little or negligible affects on quantity of yield expected.
L
M
20. Impact quality?‘Garlic mustard grows in upland and floodplain forests, savannahs, yards, along roadsides, occasionally in full sun’ (WDNR 2002). ‘Invades forested communities…’ (Nuzzo 1999). ‘Currently invading forested areas’ (Forrest Meekins & McCarthy 1999).
No evidence suggests that Alliaria petiolata is common in agricultural environments, therefore little or negligible impacts on quality of yield expected.
L
M
21. Affect land value?‘Garlic mustard grows in upland and floodplain forests, savannahs, yards, along roadsides, occasionally in full sun’ (WDNR 2002). ‘Invades forested communities…’ (Nuzzo 1999). ‘Currently invading forested areas’ (Forrest Meekins & McCarthy 1999).
No evidence suggests that Alliaria petiolata is common in agricultural environments; therefore little or no change expected.
L
M
22. Change land use?‘Garlic mustard is a rapidly spreading woodland weed that is displacing native woodland wildflowers [in Wisconsin]. It dominates the forest floor and can displace most native herbaceous species within ten years (WDNR 2002) ‘An aggressive invader of woodland areas’ ‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands where it can form dense stands…these stands can shade out native understorey flora’ (Invasives.org 2009).
No evidence suggests that Alliaria petiolata is common in agricultural environments, though competitive ability may impact on changing land uses; Some change, but no serious alteration of agricultural return, affects more visual rather than intrinsic agricultural value.
ML
M
23. Increase harvest costs?‘Garlic mustard grows in upland and floodplain forests, savannahs, yards, along roadsides, occasionally in full sun’ (WDNR 2002). ‘Invades forested communities…’ (Nuzzo 1999). ‘Currently invading forested areas’ (Forrest Meekins & McCarthy 1999).
No evidence suggests that Alliaria petiolata is common in agricultural environments, therefore little or no change to harvesting costs expected.
L
M
24. Disease host/vector?‘It also harbours a strain of turnip mosaic virus’ (CWS undated).
‘Turnip mosaic virus also causes a visual disease seen in infected plants in the paddock. The symptoms are mosaics of varying intensity and, occasionally, leaf necrosis, systemic necrosis and plant death. European work found that the impact of infection on seed yield is severe, up to 80% yield loss with early infection of canola plants’ (Jones and Coutts undated).
Provides host to minor (or common) pests or diseases.
M
M


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?‘Most seeds germinate in the spring following the year in which they were produced (Anderson et al. 1996).
Seeds can lie dormant for up to six years and require a cold period to germinate (ISSG 2008).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
M
2. Establishment requirements?‘Generally requires some shade, it is not commonly found in sunny habitats’ (WDNR 2002).
‘…ability to occupy understorey habitats successfully…’ (Anderson et al. 1996).
‘A high shade tolerance…’ (Invasives.org 2009).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
M
3. How much disturbance is required?‘Garlic mustard grows in upland and flood plain forests, savannas, yards, along roadsides’ ‘unlike other plants that invade disturbed habitats, garlic mustard readily spreads into high quality forests’ (WDNR 2002).
‘High shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands (Invasives.org 2009).
Garlic mustard maintains a low profile under low disturbance conditions, but increases rapidly with periodic disturbance. While garlic mustard is abundant in disturbed forests, it is unclear whether high quality; relatively undisturbed forests are threatened by this species. (Nuzzo 1999). ‘…tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions and occupies diverse habitats including wet and dry deciduous forests (both upland and lowland), roadsides, urban areas, forest edges, savannahs, riverbanks, flood plains and railways (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
‘It thrives in disturbed areas’ (ISSG 2008)
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. wetlands, riverine, riparian, grasslands; open woodlands); in vigorous growing crops or in well established pasture.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?‘Garlic mustard is an herbaceous, biennial forb’ (Invasives.org 2009).
‘Herb’ (Forrest Meekins & McCarthy 1999).
Other.
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?Garlic mustard produces allelopathic compounds that inhibit seed germination of other species (Invasives.org 2009).
Minor properties.
ML
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?‘Alliaria petiolata can form dense stands because it has no natural predators’ (ISSG 2008).
Favoured by heavy grazing pressure as not eaten by animals/insects and not under a biological control program in Australia/New Zealand.
H
M
7. Normal growth rate?Garlic mustard spread at an average rate of 5.4m per year between 1989 and 1992, in all plots combined. Within individual plots rate of spread varied substantially, with location of the front increasing up to 36m and decreasing as much as 18m between years (Nuzzo 1999).
Moderately rapid growth that will equal competitive species of the same life form.
MH
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?‘It cannot tolerate acidic soil’ (WDNR 2002). ‘…tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions and occupies diverse habitats including wet and dry deciduous forests (Rebek and O’Neil 2005).
Tolerant of at least one, susceptible to at least two.
L
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemGarlic mustard spreads exclusively by seed. (Nuzzo 1999). The plant is capable of cross- and self-pollination (Anderson et al. 1996).
Sexual (self and cross pollination).
ML
H
10. Number of propagules produced?‘…produces hundreds of seeds per plant’ (WDNR 2002).
‘Annual seed rain of 15,000 seeds/m2 (Anderson et al. 1996).
‘More than 100 seeds per plant’ (WDNR 2006).
A single plant produces an average of 136 to 295 seeds, depending on the size of the plant and the quality of the soil and habitat (ISSG 2008).
50-1000.
ML
M
11. Propagule longevity?[In Wisconsin] seeds lie dormant for 20 months prior to germination, and may remain viable for five years’ (WDNR 2002). ‘Seedling recruitment is high…but only about 7.5% of plants survive to maturity.’ (Anderson et al. 1996). Seeds can lie dormant for up to six years and require a cold period to germinate (ISSG 2008).
Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5-10 years in the soil.
ML
MH
12. Reproductive period?Biennial (WDNR 2002).Seeds germinate in early spring, immature plants over-winter as basal rosettes, flowering occurs the following spring, and seeds are produced and disseminated that summer. All plants die after producing seeds (Nuzzo 1999).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for only 1-2 years.
ML
MH
13. Time to reproductive maturity?‘Second year plants generally produce one or two flowering stems…’ (WDNR 2002). ‘It develops into a mature flowering plant in spring of the second year (ISSG 2006).
2-5 years to reach sexual maturity.
ML
M
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?‘Seeds are believed to be dispersed on the fur of large animals such as deer, horses and squirrels; by flowing water and by human activities’ (WDNR 2002). Seeds are ballistically expelled 1–2m from the mother plant (personal observation) and are not wind dispersed (Nuzzo 1999). Local dispersal methods include attachment to hiker’s boots and clothes, as well as animal fur and water currents. (ISSG 2008).
Propagules spread by water, attachment (humans, animals, vehicles), or by accidental human dispersal.
MH
MH
15. How far do they disperse?‘Seeds are believed to be dispersed on the fur of large animals such as deer, horses and squirrels; by flowing water and by human activities’ (WDNR 2002). Seeds are ballistically expelled 1–2m from the mother plant (personal observation) and are not wind dispersed (Nuzzo 1999).
Very few to none will disperse to one kilometre, most 20-200 metres.
ML
MH


References

Anderson RC, Dhillion SS, Kelley TM (1996) Aspects of the ecology of an Invasive Plant, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in Central Illinois. Restoration Ecology 4 181-191

CWS (2003) Canada Wildlife Service. Available at http://www.cws-scf.ec.gc.ca/PUBLICATIONS/inv/p8_e.cfm (verified 19 November 2009).

Forrest Meekins J and McCarthy BC (1999) Competitive ability of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicacae) an invasive, non-indigenous forest herb. International Journal of Plant Sciences 160 743-752.

Invasives.org (2009), available at http://www.invasive.org/species/subject.cfm?sub=3005 (verified 12 November 2009).

ISSG (2008) Alliaria petiolata. Available at http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=406&fr=1&sts=&%20ang=EN&ver=print&prtflag=false (verified 21 October 2009).

Munger, GT (2001) Alliaria petiolata. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/ [ 2009, November 19 ].

Nuzzo V (1999) Invasion pattern of the herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in high quality forests. Biological Invasions 1 169-179.

PCA (2009) Plant Conservation Alliance Plant Working Group. Available at http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/alpe1.htm (verified 12 November 2009).

Prati D and Bossdorf O (2004) Allellopathic inhibition of germination by Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 285-288.

Rebek KA and O’Neil RJ (2005) Impact of simulated herbivory on Alliaria petiolata survival, growth, and reproduction. Biological Control 34 283-289.

Rhoads and Block (2002) available online at http://www.paflora.org/Alliaria%20petiolata.PDF (verified 12 November 2009).

Vaughan SF & Berhow MA (1999) Allellochemicals isolated from tissues of the invasive weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Journal of Chemical Ecology 25: 2405-2504

Wisconsin DNR (2004) Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources http://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/fact/garlic.htm (verified 12 November 2009).

Wisconsin DNR PDF Fact sheet (2006), http://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/publications/pdfs/GarlicMustardHandout.pdf (verified 12 November 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 12 November 2009).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (2008) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 12 November 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 12 November 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ verified 12 November 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html verified 12 November 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist verified 12 November 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl verified 12 November 2009).


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