Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

Early flowering jessamine (Cestrum fasciculatum)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Cestrum fasciculatum (Schltdl). Miers
Common name(s):

early flowering jessamine

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

“In frost-free climates they [(cestrums)] are easily grown in full sun and moderately fertile, well-drained soil with plentiful water in summer” (Burnie et al. 1997). Cestrums are from woodlands (Brickell 1996). “A native of Mexico, it prefers rich, moist soils in a protected, sunny position, and is drought and frost tender” (Bodkin 1986). Cestrums are hardy to 1C/34F and need wall protection in cold areas” (Macoboy 1986). Has been found in
“large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Elevation: between 0 and 3280 feet” (Calflora, undated). Commonly appearing in scrub, waste places along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete. Odd plants occur in open pasture. The terrain on which the plants occur is steep to very steep” (Atkinson and James 1979). Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958). “No visually detectable salt-stress-induced symptoms were noted for…C. fasciculatum” (Cassaniti et al. 2009).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Horticulture perennial; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; lowland forest; forby forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland

Colours indicate possibility of Cestrum fasciculatum infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of cestrum fasciculatum
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
Possibly major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
ML
2. Reduce tourism?“Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
Some recreational uses may be affected.
MH
ML
3. Injurious to people?“All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant…A non-fatal poisoning in a child is reported in New Zealand” (Connor 1977). “All [Cestrums] contains poisonous compounds and should be treated with caution” (Covacevich et al. 1987).
Extremely toxic.
H
MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?Flowers are in dense scarlet clusters (Burnie et al. 1997).
Moderate visual effect.
ML
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Cestrums “are easily grown in…moderately fertile, well-drained soil with plentiful water in summer” (Burnie et al. 1997). Cestrums are from woodlands (Brickell 1996). C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places… Odd plants occur in open pasture. The terrain on which the plants occur is steep to very steep” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Not known to be aquatic.
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
ML
6. Impact water quality?Cestrums “are easily grown in…moderately fertile, well-drained soil with plentiful water in summer” (Burnie et al. 1997). Cestrums are from woodlands (Brickell 1996). C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places… Odd plants occur in open pasture. The terrain on which the plants occur is steep to very steep” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Not known to be aquatic.
No noticeable affect on water flow.
L
ML
7. Increase soil erosion?“Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places…Known infestations occur mainly as strips some 2-5m wide along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
ML
8. Reduce biomass?“Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places…Known infestations occur mainly as strips some 2-5m wide along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete…The terrain on which the plants occur is steep to very steep” (Atkinson and James 1979). “Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988).
Biomass may increase.
L
ML
9. Change fire regime?“Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places…Known infestations occur mainly as strips some 2-5m wide along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete…The terrain on which the plants occur is steep to very steep” (Atkinson and James 1979). “Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
May cause moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
ML
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Coastal Vine-rich Forest (V); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion = East Gippsland Lowlands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Shrub 2-4m high…C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
MH
ML
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Grassy Woodland (D); CMA = West Gippsland; Bioregion = Highlands- Southern Fall;
H CLIMATE potential.
“Shrub 2-4m high…C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
MH
ML
(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (LC); CMA = Port Phillip and Westernport; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
H CLIMATE potential.
“Shrub 2-4m high…C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
MH
ML
11. Impact on structure?“Shrub 2-4m high…C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
Minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
ML
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
M
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?“The fruits of all cestrums are succulent and readily eaten by birds. As a consequence, much seed is spread by birds, with plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places” (Atkinson and James 1979). “Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
May provide some assistance in either food shelter to desirable species.
MH
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant… A non-fatal poisoning in a child is reported in New Zealand” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958). “All [Cestrums] contains poisonous compounds and should be treated with caution” (Covacevich et al. 1987).
May be toxic and/or cause allergies.
H
ML
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“The fruits of all cestrums are succulent and readily eaten by birds. As a consequence, much seed is spread by birds, with plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places” (Atkinson and James 1979).
May supply food for one or more minor pest species. (e.g. blackbirds or environmental insect pests).
ML
M
18. Provides harbor?“Shrub 2-4m high… C. fasciculatum has been found in “large colonies in scrub and secondary forest” (Webb 1988). “Strong-growing, evergreen shrub with arching branches” 2m high and 2m wide (Brickell 1996). “Forming a large colony on a farm” (Healy 1958).
May have capacity to provide harbour and permanent warrens for foxes and rabbits throughout the year.
H
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
Potentially causing serious impacts on quantity (e.g. >20% reduction). Unviable to harvest crop/stock.
H
M
20. Impact quality?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
No reports of affecting quality. May cause little or negligible affect on quality of yield.
L
ML
21. Affect land value?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
May cause a decrease in land value given that many deaths of cattle and some sheep have been reported.
Possible decrease in land value <10%.
M
ML
22. Change land use?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
May cause some change, but no serious alteration of either agricultural return. Affects more the visual rather than intrinsic agricultural value.
ML
ML
23. Increase harvest costs?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
As fresh and dried material is equally poisonous, major effort may be needed to control it on a property.
Major increase in time or labour, or machinery in harvesting.
H
ML
24. Disease host/vector?“Pests and diseases: Trouble free” (Brickell 1996). Also no reports of pests and diseases in Bodkin (1986), Macoboy (1986), or Burnie et al. (1997). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
Known in agriculture for causing significant losses in stock but not reported as causing diseases.
Probably little or no host.
L
ML


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?No information found.
M
L
2. Establishment requirements?Cestrums are from woodlands (Brickell 1996). “Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places…Known infestations occur mainly as strips some 2-5m wide along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete. Odd plants occur in open pasture” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
M
3. How much disturbance is required?“Plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places…Known infestations occur mainly as strips some 2-5m wide along bush margins penetrating into more open areas of the bush, where canopy closure is incomplete. Odd plants occur in open pasture” (Atkinson and James 1979). Cestrums are from woodlands (Brickell 1996).
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops or in well-established pastures.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“A slender, fast-growing shrub to 10ft (3m)” (Burnie et al. 1997).
Other.
L
M
5. Allelopathic properties?No information found.
M
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“Species of cestrum [including] C. fasciculatum, have been responsible for many deaths of cattle and some sheep in New Zealand…All parts of the plant are poisonous, and dried material is as toxic as the fresh plant” (Connor 1977). “Species of cestrum have definite economic significance as causing poisoning of farm livestock, both cultivated and adventive specimens being source shrubs of toxic material…C. fasciculatum Miers was found as a garden escape…and as forming a large colony on a farm…In both occurrences the plant was responsible for poisoning of cattle” (Healy 1958).
Consumed but non-preferred.
MH
M
7. Normal growth rate?“A slender, fast-growing shrub to 10ft (3m)” (Burnie et al. 1997).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
ML
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“In frost-free climates they [(cestrums)] are easily grown in full sun and moderately fertile, well-drained soil with plentiful water in summer and regular fertilizing. In cooler climates they can be grown in a conservatory or against a wall for frost protection” (Burnie et al. 1997). “A native of Mexico, it prefers rich, moist soils in a protected, sunny position, and is drought and frost tender” (Bodkin 1986). Cestrums “all need lashings of water and regular doses of fertilizer during the warm weather…Cestrums are hardy to 1C/34F and need wall protection in cold areas” (Macoboy 1986). “No visually detectable salt-stress-induced symptoms were noted for…C. fasciculatum” (Cassaniti et al. 2009).
May be highly tolerant to salt and somewhat tolerant to frost, but not tolerant to waterlogging or drought.
Tolerant to at least two and susceptible to at least one.
ML
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemCestrums “seeds few, of moderate size” (Webb 1988).
Unknown if pollination is self and/or cross pollination. In worst case scenario it is both.
Sexual. (Self and cross pollination).
ML
ML
10. Number of propagules produced?Pictures on Dave’s Garden website show a cultivated flowerhead with 66+ individual flowers and a cultivated shrub with at least 14 flowerheads in bloom. (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). Cestrums “seeds few, of moderate size” (Webb 1988).
66 flowers x 14 flowerheads= 924.
50-1000.
ML
ML
11. Propagule longevity?No information found.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?No information found.
M
L
13. Time to reproductive maturity?No information found.
M
L
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“The fruits of all cestrums are succulent and readily eaten by birds. As a consequence, much seed is spread by birds, with plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Bird dispersed seed.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?“The fruits of all cestrums are succulent and readily eaten by birds. As a consequence, much seed is spread by birds, with plants most commonly appearing in scrub, bush margins and waste places” (Atkinson and James 1979).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometre.
H
MH


References

Atkinson G.C. and James T.K. (1979) Preliminary study on the control of red cestrum. Proc. 32nd N.Z. Weed and Pest Control Conf.

Bodkin F. (1986) Encyclopaedia Botanica: The Essential Reference Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia. Angus & Robertson.

Brickell C. (Ed.) (1996) A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. The Royal Horticultural Society. Covent Garden Books, London.

Burnie G, Forrester S, Grieg D, Guest S, Harmony M, Hobley S, Hackson G, Lavarack P, Ledgett M, McDonald R, Macoboy S, Molyneux B, Moodie D, Moore J, Newman D, North T, Pienaar K, Purdy G, Silk J, Ryan S, Schien G (1997) Botanica Random House. Milsons Point, NSW.

Calflora (undated) Cestrum fasciculatum (Schlecht.) Miers. Available at: http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=1888 (verified: 31/03/2010).

Cassaniti C, Cherubina L. and Flowers T. J. (2009) The effects of sodium chloride on ornamental shrubs. Scientia Horticulturae. 122, 586-593.

Connor H.E. (1977) The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington.

Covacevich J, Davie P and Pearn J. (Ed's.) (1987) Toxic Plants and Animals: A Guide For Australia. Queensland Museum, Quorum Books, Brisbane.

Dave’s Garden (2000-2010) Plantfiles: Early Flowering Jessamine, Red Cestrum, Early Jessamine. Available at: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/58281 (verified: 08/04/2010).

Healy A.J. (1958) Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, No.6. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 85:4, 531-549.

Macoboy S. (1986) What Flower Is That? 2nd Edn. Lansdowne Press, Sydney, Aukland, London, New York.

Webb CJ, Sykes WR and Garnock-Jones PJ. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4. Botany Division, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand.


Global present distribution data references

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 19/01/2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 09/04/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 20/08/2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19/01/2010).


Feedback

Do you have additional information about this plant that will improve the quality of the assessment?
If so, we would value your contribution. Click on the link to go to the feedback form.
Page top