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Chinese firethorn (Pyracantha fortuneana)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) Li
Common name(s):

Chinese firethorn; Yunnan Firethorn
map showing the present distribution of chinese firethorn
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Native to China naturalised in ACT, NSW, Vic, QLD & USA (Blood 2001; Kaiyun 1998). Occur occasionally in woodlands and forests in NSW, ACT & Vic (Muyt 2001). Has invaded scrub, wasteland, ungrazed rank pasture and the margins of large plantations in NZ (Webb et al. 1988). Found in coastal brushland, wooded areas & disturbed pine-oak woodland in USA. Also found on hillsides & roadsides and can grow in light woodland, (PFAF 2007) in thickets and streamsides from 500-2800m (Gu & Spongberg 2003). In scrubs on mountain slopes or under Yunnan pine forests (Kaiyun 1998). It has also been found to grow on the Tibetan Plateau at altitudes from 3255 to 4460m and mean annual temperatures from 2.6 to -4.5 C and mean annual rainfall ranging from 767 to 240 mm for the growing season (Wang et al. 2006).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Broad vegetation types
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Pyracantha fortuneana infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of chinese firethorn
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Sprawling habit to 3m (Muyt 2001; Richardson and Richardson 2006; Burnie et al. 1997). Stems usually dense, deep and has spreading green foliage (Webb et al. 1988). Multi stemmed, stiff and upright (BackyardGardener undated). Stems often spine-tipped (Webb et al. 1988) furthermore the thorny thickets of Pyracantha spp restrict access to invaded areas (Weeds Australia). Picture of plant from online source, http://www.bfns.org.au/index.php?c=3&w=26, shows the statue of the plant and indicates that establishment of this species sparse or dense is likely to affect accessibility and become a high nuisance.
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2. Reduce tourism?Fruit is scarlet to crimson (Richardson and Richardson 2006). Fruit are decorative and large, and persist through winter (3/8 inch/ 1cm) (BackyardGardener undated). High berry load as shown in picture, http://www.bfns.org.au/index.php?c=3&w=26, demonstrates the vibrant, colourful display and hence visual impact. Plant when fruiting and flowering becomes obvious to visitors and is likely to have a major impact on the aesthetics of an area. Visual impact may be considered appealing by visitors. Width and fullness of the species can affect other recreation activities if the species was able to establish dense infestations.
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3. Injurious to people?Pyracantha thorn contains infectious bacteria (Padhye et al. 1998). Most if not all species in the genus Pyracantha produce hydrogen cyanide and is found in small quantities in the leaves and seeds of the plants (PFAF 2007). Seeds of Pyracantha spp. may cause mild stomach upset if ingested (Brickell 1996). In excess it can cause respiratory failure and death (PFAF 2007). In addition stems often spine-tipped (Webb et al. 1988). Spines and toxic properties at most times of the year.
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4. Damage to cultural sites?Pyracantha spp have not been recommended for growing around the foundations of single story buildings because their accelerated growth rate can cause damage (Clemson 2009). In addition the plant produces displays of scarlet berries that are extremely prolific (Richardson and Richardson 2006). High berry load and prolific flowering is likely to create a moderate visual effect and accelerated growth rate of Pyracantha species are able to have a moderate structural effect.
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Abiotic
5. Impact flow?A terrestrial species (Muyt 2001) having little affect on water flow.
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6. Impact water quality?A terrestrial species (Muyt 2001) having little affect on water quality.
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7. Increase soil erosion?P. fortuneana has a sprawling habit to 3m (Muyt 2001; Richardson and Richardson 2006; Burnie et al. 1997). Stems usually dense, deep and has spreading green foliage (Webb et al. 1988). Firethorns are known to establish around urban woodlands and forests and the plants from the genus can shade out native species (Weeds Australia) subsequently displacing existing shrubs and reducing soil stability. Coupled with fast growth rates dense infestations may have a moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
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8. Reduce biomass?P.fortuneana has a sprawling habit to 3m (Muyt 2001; Richardson and Richardson 2006; Burnie et al. 1997). Stems usually dense, deep and has spreading green foliage (Webb et al. 1988). Firethorns are known to establish around urban woodlands and forests and the plants from the genus can shade out native species (Weeds Australia) subsequently displacing species in mid and lower stratums. Furthermore coupled with fast growth rates dense infestations are likely to increase biomass.
Biomass may increase.
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9. Change fire regime?An increase in biomass due to P. fortuneana invasions could subsequently lead to an increase the intensity of fire also because it provides a year round fuel source. However no information was found in the literature on the volatility of P.fortuneana or its impact on fire regimes.
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Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Box Ironbark Forests (V); CMA = Goulbourn Broken; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina;
VH CLIMATE potential
P.fortuneana grows to a height and spread of 3.5 metres (Burnie et al. 1997) is likely to reduce light to existing native species beneath the shrub. Coupled with the species ability to dominate plant communities, once established, impacts (reduced light and competition for nutrients subsequent displacement of existing species) are likely to be amplified affecting ground strata species more so but also species of similar life form. In adequate conditions the species exhibits vigorous growth.
Clusters of the plant are likely to cause major displacement of dominant species within understorey species.
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(b) medium value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (D); CMA = Wimmera; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
P.fortuneana grows to a height and spread of 3.5 metres (Burnie et al. 1997) is likely to reduce light to existing native species beneath the shrub. Coupled with the species ability to dominate plant communities, once established, impacts (reduced light and competition for nutrients subsequent displacement of existing species) are likely to be amplified affecting ground strata species more so but also species of similar life form. In adequate conditions the species exhibits vigorous growth.
Clusters of the plant are likely to cause major displacement of dominant species within understory species.
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(c) low value EVCEVC = Rocky Outcrop Shrubland (LC); CMA = Wimmera; Bioregion = Dundas Tablelands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
P.fortuneana grows to a height and spread of 3.5 metres (Burnie et al. 1997) is likely to reduce light to existing native species beneath the shrub. Coupled with the species ability to dominate plant communities, once established, impacts (reduced light and competition for nutrients subsequent displacement of existing species) are likely to be amplified affecting ground strata species more so but also species of similar life form. In adequate conditions the species exhibits vigorous growth.
Clusters of the plant are likely to cause major displacement of dominant species within understorey species.
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11. Impact on structure?“Naturalised and known to be a major problem [in natural ecosystems] at 3 or fewer locations within Australia” (Groves et al. 2003). P. fortuneana + Spiraea alpine are a main vegetation type found in plant communities within the Tibetan Plateau (Wang et al. 2006). This highlights P.fortuneana ability to become a dominant feature within the plant communities it establishes in. Furthermore Firethorns are generally known to shade out native species (Weeds Australia). P.fortuneana height and spread of 3.5 metres (Burnie et al. 1997) is likely to reduce light to existing native species beneath the shrub. Coupled with the species ability to dominate plant communities, once established, impacts (reduced light and competition for nutrients subsequent displacement of existing species) are likely to be amplified affecting ground strata species more so but also species of similar life form. Likely to have a major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
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12. Effect on threatened flora?The effect on threatened flora has not yet been determined.
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Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?The impact on threatened flora has not been established. However it is valuable to note that the berries produced by this species provide a valuable food source for dominant, aggressive, pest birds (and animals) such as pied currawongs (Blood 2001).
This may impact on the viability of native (threatened) bird (animal) populations.
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14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Birds particularly attracted to fruits of this P.fortuneana (PFAF 2007). The berries produced by this species provide a valuable food source for dominant, aggressive birds such as pied currawongs (Blood 2001) subsequently contributing to the pied currawong imbalance in Canberra (Blood 2001). Sustaining pied currawong populations may also lead to intra species competition and the decline of smaller native bird species. In addition P.fortuneana can also impact on habitat viability by shading out native species (Weeds Australia) and reducing vegetation structure within a community causing a minor reduction in habitat for non threatened fauna.
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15. Benefits fauna?Flowers are pollinated by bees providing an alternative food source for insects. Birds particularly attracted to fruits of this P.fortuneana (PFAF 2007). The high berry load provides a valuable food source for aggressive such as pied currawongs (Blood 2001) and Crimson rosellas (Platycerus elegans) and Eastern rosellas (Platycerus eximius) have also been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993). This may indicate that the berries are also an appealing food source for native bird species. The appeal of the berries may also extend to desirable terrestrial animals. Plant architecture being sprawling and dense to 3 metres (Muyt 2001; Richardson and Richardson 2006; Burnie et al. 1997) indicates that it is likely to provide habitat for desirable species.
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16. Injurious to fauna?Stems often spine-tipped (Webb et al. 1988; Webb et al. 1988) likely to cause physical injury. Listed as a plant that is harmful to birds (parrots in particular) (TGP 2006). Most if not all species in the genus Pyracantha produce hydrogen cyanide and is found in small quantities in the leaves and seeds of the plants (PFAF 2007). P. fortuneana can be toxic to ruminant animals (Blood 2001) toxicity may apply to native animals also. Toxic properties unknown to native animals however spines on plant may cause physical injury.
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Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Contributes to the pied currawong population imbalance in Canberra (Blood 2001). Blackbirds have been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993). It is also valuable to note that fruits are appealing to terrestrial pest species however consumption by these species have not been documented.
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18. Provides harbor?Plant architecture being sprawling and dense to 3 metres (Muyt 2001; Richardson and Richardson 2006; Burnie et al. 1997) indicates that it is likely to provide habitat for minor pest bird species.
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Agriculture
19. Impact yield?In Australia the plant status in agricultural ecosystems is as follows: has naturalised and known to be a minor problem warranting control at 4 or more locations within a State or Territory (Groves et al. 2003). Furthermore in Victoria P.fortuneana is present but not given a rating either because not an agricultural problem or because it was not known to occur in agricultural areas at present (Groves et al. 2003). Generally not commonly considered an agricultural weed (GCW 2007). Impact on yield has not been documented.
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20. Impact quality?In Australia the plant status in agricultural ecosystems is as follows: has naturalised and known to be a minor problem warranting control at 4 or more locations within a State or Territory (Groves et al. 2003). Furthermore in Victoria P.fortuneana is present but not given a rating either because not an agricultural problem or because it was not known to occur in agricultural areas at present (Groves et al. 2003). Generally not commonly considered an agricultural weed (GCW 2007). Impact on yield has not been documented. P. fortuneana can be toxic to ruminants (Blood 2001) due to hydrogen cyanide found in small quantities in the leaves and seeds of the plants (PFAF 2007). This toxin may affect quality of meat when/if ingested by ruminants however this has not been substantiated.
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21. Affect land value?In Australia the plant status in agricultural ecosystems is as follows: has naturalised and known to be a minor problem warranting control at 4 or more locations within a State or Territory (Groves et al. 2003). Furthermore in Victoria P.fortuneana is present but not given a rating either because not an agricultural problem or because it was not known to occur in agricultural areas at present (Groves et al. 2003). Generally not commonly considered an agricultural weed (GCW 2007). Affect on land value is negligible.
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22. Change land use?P. fortneana can be toxic to ruminants (Blood 2001) due to hydrogen cyanide found in small quantities in the leaves and seeds of the plants (PFAF 2007). P. fortuneana infestations in grazed pastures require movement of stock from site and change in short term land use because P. fortuneana shrubs (broadleaf weed) can be controlled by a selective surface-applied herbicide (Southern Agricultural Insecticides 1998).
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23. Increase harvest costs?P. fortneana can be toxic to ruminants (Blood 2001) due to hydrogen cyanide found in small quantities in the leaves and seeds of the plants (PFAF 2007). May cause ill health in stock hence increase veterinary costs. However impacts of this kind were not documented in the literature reviewed.
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24. Disease host/vector?Fire blight caused by bacterium Erwinia amylovora is able to infect Pyracantha (Schanbel and Jones 2001).
Susceptible to armillaria root rot (Armillaria mellea) (Pittender & Hodel, 2007). Phytophthora syringae identified on Pyracantha in the UK (Henricot et al 2004). Pyracantha also susceptible to scab disease causes discolorations and distortion of the leaves (Thomas 1992). Host to light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) (USDA 2008).
Host to major and severe disease.
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Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Sown during cold frame (PFAF 2007), requires cold stratification. Fruit’s flesh can inhibit germination (PFAF 2007).
Requires normal seasonal disturbances for germination.
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2. Establishment requirements?P. fortuneana can grow in all pH’s and in full sun or semi shade (light woodland) or no shade and requires moist soil (PFAF 2007). Although fruiting limited in shady position (PFAF 2007). Plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, and always requires well drained soil (PFAF 2007).
P. fortuneana is able to establish under moderate canopy cover although best growth and fruiting achieved in full sun.
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3. How much disturbance is required?P. fortuneana has been found to establish on hillsides, roadsides and waste places (PFAF 2007). In Hawaii has established in weedy, disturbed places on pyroclastic (volcanic rock) soil at 1210 m (Evenhuis and Eldredge (eds).1998). Established in Florida in coastal brushland, wooded area and disturbed pine-oak woodland (University of South Florida). In its native China found in thickets, stream sides and roadsides at 500-2800m (Flora of China 1944). In New Zealand found to establish in scrub and margins of large plantations and in habitats such as ridge top in open site, on railway ballast (gravel), ungrazed rank pasture, dry stony waste land, and abandoned land (Flora of New Zealand Series 2004). It has also been found to grow on the Tibetan Plateau at altitudes from 3255 to 4460m and mean annual temperatures from 2.6 to -4.5 C and mean annual rainfall ranging from 767 to 240 mm for the growing season (Wang et al. 2006). Generally Firethorns are known to establish around urban woodlands and forests (Weeds Australia).
P. fortuneana is able to establish in relatively intact ecosystems and also in partially disturbed areas.
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Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Evergreen shrub, 1.5-3m high (Kaiyun 1998; Bodkin 1986; Burnie 1997).
Other.
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5. Allelopathic properties?No allelopathic properties have been described in the literature reviewed.
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6. Tolerates herb pressure?Not deer resistant (Crescentbloom) although conflicting literature reports the plant as tolerating deer and rabbits (BackyardGardener). P. fortuneana can be toxic to ruminant animals (Blood 2001).
Possibly may not be palatable to animals. Its tolerance to herb pressure is therefore unknown.
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7. Normal growth rate?Pyracanthas including P.fortuneana are described as very fast growing at times they can exceed 2 feet a year (Clemson 2009).
Moderately rapid growth rate that will competitive species of the same life form.
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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Hardy to zone 7 (to at least -18 to -12oC) (PFAF 2007) and has been seen to survive cold winters where the average annual low is -23C (crescentbloom). It has also been found to grow on the Tibetan Plateau at mean annual temperatures from 2.6 to -4.5 C for the growing season (Wang et al. 2006). Tolerates hot, dry and humid areas (BackyardGardener) however requires adequate moisture in dry weather (Page & Olds 1999). Frost resistant but drought tender (Bodkin 1986). P. fortuneana has been reported to exist in Yunnan forests within a hot-dry river valley and existing within a heat- enduring petrophile- bush cluster of plants (Yunqiu and Yuhui 1999). Described as a xerophile, fire enduring, tread-enduring and pasturing-enduring shrub (Yunqiu and Yuhui 1999). Occurring in a Found to have a moderate tolerance to salinity (no higher than 5 to6 dS/m) (Leland 1980). P.fortuneana looks to be tolerant to frost, drought and moderately tolerant to salinity but susceptible to water-logging.
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Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemThe flowers on P.fortuneana are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by bees (PFAF 2007). Propagation by seed or by cuttings (Bodkin 1986 1986; Blood 2001; University of South Florida) and cultivated as an ornamental (PlantNET 2007). Reproduction naturally by seed.
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10. Number of propagules produced?Mature bush can produce one million seeds per year (Blood 2001). The mature plant is likely to produce greater than 2000 propagules per flowering event.
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11. Propagule longevity?No information on propagule longevity was found in the literature.
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12. Reproductive period?Woody perennial (Crescentbloom; Bodkin 1986) life span of 5-20 years (Crescentbloom). Likely to produce viable plant propagules for 10 years or more.
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13. Time to reproductive maturity?Fruit is borne on second year wood (Page & Olds 1999) hence takes 2 years to reach sexual maturity.
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Seeds are spread by birds and dumped garden waste (Blood 2001). Birds are particularly attracted to the fruit of this plant (PFAF 2007) hence spreading by bird dispersed seed (Swardrick and Skarratt 1994). Crimson rosellas (Platycerus elegans) and Eastern rosellas (Platycerus eximius) have been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993). Further pied currawongs and blackbirds have been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993; Blood 2001). Seeds dispersed by birds and flying animals, also humans (BFNS 2004). An ornamental species that is propagated by seeds or cuttings (Bodkin 1986). Escaping from cultivated plants (University of South Florida; Webb et al. 1988). P.fortuneana has edible fruit that is readily eaten by highly mobile animals.
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15. How far do they disperse?Crimson rosellas (Platycerus elegans) and Eastern rosellas (Platycerus eximius) have been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993). Further pied currawongs amd blackbirds have been observed eating this species (Lepschi 1993; Blood 2001). Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometer.
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References
BackyardGardener, 2007, Pyracantha fortuneana, BackyardGardener.com, viewed: 07/05/2008, http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantsearch.html

BFNS (Bushland Friendly Nursery Scheme) 2004. Shrubs and Scramblers: Orange Firethorn (Pyracantha fortuneana), viewed 07/05/2008, http://www.bfns.org.au/index.php?c=3&w=26

Blood, K. 2001, Environmental weeds: a field guide for SE Australia, CH Jerram & Associates-Science Publishers, Melbourne, Australia.

Bodkin F 1986. Encyclopaedia Botanica: The Essential Reference Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia. Angus and Robertson.

Brickell C. (Ed.) (1996) A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. The Royal Horticultural Society. Covent Garden Books, London.

Burnie G, Forrester S, Greig D, Guest S, Harmony M, Hobley S, Jackson G, Lavarack P. Dr, Ledgett M, McDonald R. Dr, Macoboy S, Molyneux B,
Moodie D, Moore J, Newman D, North T, Pienaar Kristo Professor, Purdy G, Silk J, Ryan S and Schien 1997. Botanica: The illustrated A-Z of over 10,000 garden plants and how to cultivate them. Random House NSW.

California Oak Mortality Taskforce (COMTF) 2007, ‘Host of the Month Archive,’ University of California, Berkeley, viewed: 3/1/2007, http://nature.berkeley.edu/comtf/html/host_of_the_month_archive.html#Pyracantha

Clemson, Home and Garden information. Factsheet: Pyracantha. Viewed at, http://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/HGIC1072.htm

Cresecentbloom. Pyracantha fortuneana, viewed 07/05/2008, http://www.crescentbloom.com/Plants/Specimen/PU/Pyracantha%20fortuneana.htm

Evenhuis N. L and Eldredge L.G (eds) 1999. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1988 Part: 1 Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. Bishop Museum Press Honolulu. Number 58. p. 9

Flora of China 1944. Pyracantha fortuneana. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200011175

GCW (Global Compendium of Weeds) 2007. Pyracantha fortuneana. Viewed at, http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/pyracantha_rogersiana/

Groves, R.H. (Convener) Hosking, J.R Batianoff, G.N. Cooke, D.A. Cowie, I.D. Johnson, R.W. Keighery, G.J. Lepschi, B.J Mitchell, A.A Moerkerk, M. Randall, R.P. Rozefelds, A.C. Walsh, N.G. & Waterhouse, B.M. 2003, Weed Categories for Natural and Agricultural Ecosystem Management, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Gu, C. & Spongberg, S.A. 2003, ‘Pyracantha’ in Flora of China, vol. 9, viewed: 18/12/2006, www.efloras.org/index.aspx

Henricot B, Waghorn I, Denton G, Perez Sierra A.M 2004. First report of fruit rot caused by Phytophthora syringae on Pyracantha in the UK. Plant Pathology. 53, p.805.

Kaiyun G (eds) 1998. Highland Flowers of Yunnan. Kunming Institute of Botany. The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Yunnan Science and Technology Press.

Leland F 1980. Salt Injury to Ornamental Shrubs and Ground Covers. U.S Salinity Laboratory. Science and Education Administration. Home and
Garden Bulletin 231, USDA. Viewed 07/05/2008, http://www.google.com.au/search?hl=en&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=salt+injury+to+ornamental+shrubs+and+ground+covers&spell=1

Lepschi, B.J. 1993, food of Some Birds in Easter New South Wales: Additions to Bardker & Vestjens,’ Emu, vol. 93, p. 195-199.

Muyt, A. 2001, Bush invaders of south east Australia, RG & FJ Richardson, Melbourne.

Padhye A.A, Davis M.S, Bear D, Reddick A, Sinha K.K and Ott J 1998. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phaeoacremonium inflatipes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 36. p. 2763-2765.

Page, S. & Olds, M. 1999, Botanica, 3rd ed., Random House, Australia.

Pittender, D.R. & Hodel, D.R. 2007, ‘Selection of Landscape Plants (Table 13.1),’ University of California Cooperative Extension, viewed: 31/1/2007, ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/5764/26245.pdf

PlantNET 2007. NSW Flora Online: Pyracantha crenatoserrata, viewed at, http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Pyracantha~rogersiana

Plants for a Future (PFAF) 2007, ‘Pyracantha crenato-serrata,’ Plants for a future database, viewed 04/05/2008, www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/database/latinP.html

Richardson, R.G. & Richardson, F.J. 2006, Weeds of the south-east: an identification guide for Australia, R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith, Vic.

Ruiz, M.L. Zuniga, B.G. & Pena, M.R. 1994, ‘Morphological variations of Erosoma lanigerum (Homoptera:Aphididae) on Pyracantha koidzumii in Mexico City,’ Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 87(1), p. 108-115.

Schnabel E.L and Jones A.L 2001. Isolation and Characterisation of five Erwinia amylovora bacteriophages and assessment of phage resistance in strains of Erwinia amylovora. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 67. p. 59-64.

Southern Agricultural Insecticides 1998. Surflan A.S. Pre-emergent Herbicide, viewed 08/05/2008, http://www.google.com.au/search?hl=en&q=Southern+Agricultural+Insecticides+1998.+Surflan+A.S.+Pre-emergent+Herbicide&btnG=Search&meta=

Swarbrick J T and Skarratt D B 1994. The Bushweed 2 Database of Environmental Weeds in Australia. The University of Queensland Gatton College.

Talking Green Parrot (TGP) 2006, ‘Plants that are harmful to birds,’ Talking Green Parrot, viewed:3/1/2007,

Thomas G.S 1992. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos: excluding Roses and Rhododendrons. Garden Consultant to the National Trust.

University of South Florida. USF Herbarium. Selected Specimen Details: Pyracantha fortuneana, viewed 04/05/2008, http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/herbarium/SpecimenDetails.aspx?PlantID=1355

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) 2008. Treatment Program for Light Brown Apple Moth in California: Environmental Assessment February 2008. Marketing and Regulatory Programs; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Viewed 06/05/2008, http://www.google.com.au/search?hl=en&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=USDA+(United+States+Department+of+Agriculture)+2008.+Treatment+Program+for+Light+Brown+Apple+Moth+in+California&spell=1

Wang W, Wang Q, Li S and Wang G 2006. Distribution and species diversity of plant communities along transect on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Biodiversity and Conservation. 15. p. 1811-1828.

Webb, C.J. Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988, Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV, Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons,

First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcr. A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres, Viewed: 5/2008,
http://FloraSeries.LandcareResearch.co.nz

Weeds Australia. Weed Identification- Firethorn: Pyracantha spp. Viewed at, http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&ibra=all&card=S25

Yunqiu X and Yuhui L 1999. Karst Geology, Geomorphology and Ecosystems of Shilin, Yunnan. Karst dynamics Laboratory, Guilin, Yunan Normal University, Kunning, viewed 07/05/2008, http://www.karst.edu.cn/guidebook/shilin/shilin.htm


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2008) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 13 March 2008).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 11 March 2008).

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