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Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Pinus halepensis Mill.
Common name(s):

Aleppo pine
map showing the present distribution of pinus halepensis
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

It is drought-hardy and grows well on limestone soils (Weeds Australia undated). Withstands drought, poor drainage, excessive heat, high winds and some aerial salt. It grows well on dry rocky limestone soils and can tolerate both acid and alkaline soils (Weeds In Australia undated). Typically distributed in low-elevations with poor soils (Moya et al. 2008). Coastal; up to 2000 metres (Byles undated). It invades Mallee and grassy woodlands (Muyt 2001). Pinus halepensis is common in plantations, parks and gardens (Walsh and Entwistle 1996). Rocky places and hills by the sea; dislikes
poorly drained soils (PFAF undated). Habitats include hill slopes, valleys and creek banks (Spooner 1997). Several species from mild climates that will not grow in cool temperate climates…thrive in south eastern Australia including Pinus halepensis. Grows naturally throughout the Mediterranean countries. Naturalised in Australia…the dune of coastal Barwon Heads…’ (Spencer 1995).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Pinus halepensis infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of pinus halepensis
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?‘Aleppo pine is a spreading evergreen tree up to 20m tall’ (Weeds Australia undated). The trunk often divides half way up into two or more stems; many branches develop giving the tree a broad crown (Weeds in Australia undated). It has been widely planted in parks and cemeteries as a shade tree in Victoria and South Australia (Weeds Australia undated). ‘Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation (Weber 2003). Low nuisance value, impedes individual access; unable to walk to waterways.
ML
MH
2. Reduce tourism?It has been widely planted in parks and cemeteries as a shade tree in Victoria and South Australia (Weeds Australia undated).Commonly planted in parks and gardens as a shade tree (Weeds in Australia undated). Pine species in general can have an impact on human health. Physical contact with pine trees, pollen or dust can cause dermatitis and trigger asthma in sensitive people (Weeds in Australia undated). Minor effects to aesthetics.
ML
M
3. Injurious to people?Pine species in general can have an impact on human health. Physical contact with pine trees, pollen or dust can cause dermatitis and trigger asthma in sensitive people (Weeds in Australia undated). Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues (e.g. hay fever, minor rashes, minor damage from spines at certain times of year).
ML
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?It has been widely planted in parks and cemeteries as a shade tree in Victoria and South Australia (Weeds Australia undated).Commonly planted in parks and gardens as a shade tree (Weeds in Australia undated). Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness. The thick litter layer prevents any seedling establishment of native plants (Weber 2003). Moderate visual effect.
ML
MH
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness (Weber 2003). Little or negligible impact on water flow.
L
MH
6. Impact water quality?Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness (Weber 2003). Noticeable but minor effects in either dissolved O2 or light levels.
ML
MH
7. Increase soil erosion?Typically distributed in low-elevations with poor soils (Moya et al. 2008). Pinus halepensis is common in plantations, parks and gardens (Walsh and Entwistle). Rocky places and hills by the sea (PFAF undated). Low probability of large scale soil movement.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?The thick litter layer prevents any seedling establishment of native plants. ‘Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation (Weber 2003). Biomass may increase.
L
MH
9. Change fire regime?[Pinus halepensis is] ‘Known for its ability to grow in fire affected areas. After fire, regeneration is solely dependant on canopy stored seed bank (Moya et al. 2008). Fires can lead to mass establishment of seedlings. The thick litter layer prevents any seedling establishment of native plants (Weber 2003). Deep rooted (Simpfendorfer 1992). Pinus halepensis is highly inflammable (Thanos et al. 1996). ‘The wood is coarse and resinous and makes a useful fuel’ (NRC 1980) Moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
MH
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Box Ironbark Forest (V); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina; VH CLIMATE potential. Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness. Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weber 2003; Weeds in Australia undated). Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
MH
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Grassy Dry Forest (D); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Northern Inland Slopes; VH CLIMATE potential. Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness. Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weber 2003; Weeds in Australia undated). Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
MH
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Coastal Headland Scrub (LC); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Bridgewater; VH CLIMATE potential. Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness. Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weber 2003; Weeds in Australia undated). Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
MH
H
11. Impact on structure?Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation, alter nutrient and water relations and reduce light and species richness. Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weber 2003; Weeds in Australia undated). Minor effects on >60% of the layers or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
MH
12. Effect on threatened flora?Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weeds in Australia undated). Direct impacts to threatened flora are uncertain.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weeds in Australia undated). No specific impacts on threatened fauna could be found.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Aleppo pine can have a dramatic effect on the environment. The think pine leaf litter can reduce the fertility and change nutrient cycling in soils as well as changing the water cycle. The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weeds in Australia undated). Minor effects on fauna species, reduction in habitat/food/shelter.
ML
M
15. Benefits fauna?The leaf litter also creates a thick layer that prevents seedling establishment, especially of native species, reducing plant diversity in the area (Weeds in Australia undated). ‘Where invasive, stands of this tree displace native vegetation (Weber2003). Provides very little support to desirable species.
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MH
16. Injurious to fauna?No effects to fauna species are documented.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Bird dispersed seeds (Weeds In Australia undated). Provides minimal food for pest species.
L
M
18. Provides harbour?‘Aleppo pine is a spreading evergreen tree up to 20m tall’ (Weeds Australia undated). The trunk often divides half way up into two or more stems; many branches develop giving the tree a broad crown (Weeds in Australia undated).
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?When the environment is favourable to the flowering of Pinus halepensis… prolific regeneration occurs in paddocks and along roadsides (Spencer 2001). Pinus halepensis is not commonly used as a plantation species (Spencer 1995). Not a weed of agriculture (Randall 2007), more commonly found in parks, gardens and plantations (Spooner 1997). Little or negligible impact on quantity of yield
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M
20. Impact quality?Not a weed of agriculture, more commonly found in parks, gardens and plantations. Little or negligible impact on quality of yield.
L
ML
21. Affect land value?When the environment is favourable to the flowering of Pinus halepensis… prolific regeneration occurs in paddocks and along roadsides (Spencer 2001). Specific impacts to land value are unknown.
M
L
22. Change land use?When the environment is favourable to the flowering of Pinus halepensis… prolific regeneration occurs in paddocks and along roadsides (Spencer 2001). Specific changes to land use are unknown.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?‘Pinus halepensis is more of a nuisance than a threat, though cost of controlling regeneration can become a burden to property owners who see the species as invasive on pasture land (Spencer 2001) Minor increase in cost of harvesting, e.g. slightly more time or labour is required.
ML
M
24. Disease host/vector?No serious diseases are known…several fungi may attack the young tree if moisture is not controlled (NRC 1980). Uncertain if this species is a host to serious disease.
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L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?It is drought-hardy and grows well on limestone soils (Weeds Australia undated). Very tolerant of calcareous soils, trees can be found throughout the dry areas of Australia (down to 300 mm rainfall). (Spencer 2001). ‘Seed release from cones is controlled by environmental conditions, especially by high temperature and low air humidity’ (Thanos et al. 1996). Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
H
2. Establishment requirements?Habitats include hill slopes, valleys and creek banks (Spooner 1997). It invades Mallee and grassy woodlands (Muyt 2001). Pinus halepensis is common in plantations, parks and gardens (Walsh and Entwistle). Rocky places and hills by the sea (PFAF undated). - Requires more specific requirements to establish.
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?Habitats include hill slopes, valleys and creek banks (Spooner 1997). It invades Mallee and grassy woodlands (Muyt 2001). Pinus halepensis is common in plantations, parks and gardens (Walsh and Entwistle). Rocky places and hills by the sea (PFAF undated). Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?‘Aleppo pine is a spreading evergreen tree up to 20m tall’ (Weeds Australia undated). Other.
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M
5. Allelopathic properties?Results of the study by Alrababah et al. (2009) concluded that allelopathic effects of Pinus halepensis reduced seed germination in wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and faba bean crops in Jordan. Allelopathic properties seriously affecting some plants.
MH
H
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Browsing by cattle, sheep or wallabies while the plant is small can retard growth and will often result in poor stem form (Spencer 2001). The pine bast scale insect (Matsucoccus josephi) causes substantial economic losses in Pinus halepensis plantations around the Mediterranean, although the insect is not yet in Australia. Consumed and recovers slowly.
ML
MH
7. Normal growth rate?‘In favourable conditions, it grows rapidly…’ ‘The average height growth rate is 0.3-0.5 m per year, up to 50 years’ (NRC 1980). Moderately rapid growth rate that will equal competitive species of the same form.
MH
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?It is drought-hardy and grows well on limestone soils (Weeds Australia undated). Withstands drought, poor drainage, excessive heat, high winds and some aerial salt (Weeds In Australia undated). Aleppo pine is one of the most drought tolerant pines (Muyt 2001; Spencer 2001). Coastal and elevations of up to 2000 metres (Byles undated). Grows from sea level to 1500 m, very tolerant of calcareous soils, trees can be found throughout the dry areas of Australia (down to 300 mm rainfall). (Spencer 2001). ‘Withstands high temperatures, but it will also withstand brief and occasional spells of -18 to -20C. In native habitat, altitudes below 1000 ft can be found up to 2000 ft.
Tolerant to at least two and susceptible to at least one.
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MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system‘Aleppo pine reproduces only from seed’ (Weeds In Australia undated). Sexual (either cross or self pollination).
L
M
10. Number of propagules produced?‘It produces a large amount of seed’ (Weeds in Australia undated).Aleppo pine produces prolific seed crops (Spencer 2001). ‘Pinus halepensis is an obligate seeder and produces large seed crops’ (Thanos et al 1996). From evidence, assumed high ratings 1000-2000.
MH
MH
11. Propagule longevity?No evidence, propagule longevity unknown.
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12. Reproductive period?Unknown.
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L
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Unknown.
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L
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Abundant woody cones release large numbers of windblown seeds which may spread long distances. (Weeds Australia undated). Seeds are small and winged which helps for wind distribution. Seeds can be carried by wind over large distances or dispersed by birds (Weeds In Australia undated). ‘Winged seeds’ Spooner 1997). Very light wind dispersed or bird dispersed seeds.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?Abundant woody cones release large numbers of windblown seeds which may spread long distances. (Weeds Australia undated).Seeds can be carried by wind over large distances or dispersed by birds (Weeds In Australia undated). Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometre.
H
MH


References

Efloras SA (2007) http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/texhtml.cgi?form=speciesfacts&family=Pinaceae&genus=Pinus&species=halepensis

Moya D, Espelta JM, Lopez-Serrano, Eugenio M, De Las-Heras J (2008) Natural post-fire dynamics and serotiny in 10-year-old Pinus halepensis Mill. stands along a geographical gradient. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 287-292

Muyt A. (2001) Bush Invaders of South-East Australia: A Guide To the Identification and Control of Environmental Weeds Found in South-East Australia. R.G. and F.J. Richardson. Meredith.

National Academy of Science (1980) Firewood crops: shrubs and tree

Randall R (2007) Global compendium of weeds. Available at http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/pinus_brutia/ (verified 15 June 2009).

Richardson FJ, Richardson RG (2006) Weeds of the South East; an identification guide for Australia

Spencer D (2001) Conifers in the Dry Country. Published by CSIRO

Spooner (1997) Florabase http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/17671

Walsh N and Entwisle T. (Eds.) (1994) Flora of Victoria: Volume 2. Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Weber E (2003) Invasive Plant Species of the World; A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. CABI Publishing.

Weeds Australia (undated) Aleppo Pine. Available at http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&ibra=all&card=E02

Weeds In Australia (undated) http://www.weeds.gov.au/cgi-bin/weeddetails.pl?taxon_id=2023




Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 17 June 2009).

Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) (2009) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni (verified 17 June 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 17 June 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 17 June 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 17 June 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 17 June 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 17 June 2009).


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