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Sale (Se)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Sale- geoArea: 163 sq. km (0.8%)

Most of the later Pleistocene terrace is mapped as Sale land system. The terrace is almost flat and it retains features developed during its period as a flood plain, including fluviatile forms and soils. The soils are more pervious than the underlying materials and incipient poor drainage, exacerbated by irrigation, is a feature. Waterlogging is relatively severe on the plains near Bairnsdale and here it is accompanied by subsoil sodicity. As soil parent materials are mainly clayey and silty and as drainage tends to be poor, leaching, weathering and other processes have not caused significant vertical differentiation in the profiles. Widespread occurrence of mottling is due to periodic waterlogging. Inadequate leaching and saline groundwaters probably account for the alkalinity of the deep subsoils and the mild acidity of the topsoils. The salinity hazard is rated as moderate.

The native vegetation, probably mainly a grassy open forest II dominated by E. tereticornis, has been almost entirely cleared.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Sale- image
Flat, relict alluvial plains with remnants of
Eucalyptus teteticornis (forest red gum) open forest

CLIMATE
Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

Annual 500 - 800; lowest July (30 - 50), highest October (50 - 80)

Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (8 - 10), highest February (19 - 21)
Temperature <10C (av.): June - August
Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
GEOLOGY
Age, lithology

Upper
Pleistocene alluvium of gravels, sands, silts and clays
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Landscape
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

Almost flat alluvial plains

40
0 - 5
Dendritic
0.5
PRESENT LAND USEMostly cleared: grazing of beef and dairy cattle on improved irrigated pastures; cropping (limited)
Minor proportion uncleared: some apiculture

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Sale- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Sale- graph

LAND COMPONENT
Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
1
85
Broad, almost flat, relict plains
2
15
Slightly depressed, less well drained areas
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
1, (0 - 2)
Straight
<1, (0 - 1)
Straight to slightly concave
SOIL
Parent material
Mainly silt and clay but coarser alluvial materials occur in places
Description
Dark greyish brown loam to clay loam topsoil, often mottled over
mottled dark brown or dark yellowish brown clay subsoil with blocky
structure; alkaline reaction at depth. Weak duplex tendency common
Mottled dark greyish brown clay loam to light clay topsoil grading
into mottled dark brown or dark yellowish brown blocky clay subsoil;
moderately alkaline at depth
Classification
Wiesenboden/Solodic Soils, Wiesenboden
Db2.23, Db4.23, Dy3.23, Dd2.23, Gn3.56
Humic Gleys, some Wiesenboden
Gn3.23, Gn3.53, Db2.13
Surface texture
Loam to clay loam
Clay loam to light clay
Surface consistence
Slightly hard to hard when dry
Firm when moist
Depth (m)
>2.0
>2.0
Nutrient status
Moderate
Moderate to high
Available soil water capacity
Moderate
Moderate
Perviousness to water
Slow
Slow
Drainage
Somewhat poor
Poor to somewhat poor
Exposed stone (%)
0
0
Sampled profile number
69
-
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Grassy open forest II: E. tereticornis+
Clearing has made it difficult to determine other tree species which may have grown in association

    Disturbance
    Affected process and trend
    Primary resultant deterioration
    Casual activities
    Primary off-site process
    Form
    Susceptibility of components
    Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:


    — reduction in leaf area, rooting
    depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep
    percolation


    b) raised watertable



    Nutrient loss



    Waterlogging


    Salting



    Not determined



    1; low
    2; moderate

    1; low
    2; moderate



    Not determined



    Common: seasonal


    Common



    Removal of trees



    Reduced plant-water use
    in catchment

    Reduced plant-water use
    in catchment



    Increased movement of water to groundwater


    Increased ponding of water in lower areas

    Increased salting in lower areas

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    1; very low
    Uncommon
    Cultivating overgrazing road building and other earth-moving activities, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction

    With

    Reduced infiltration
    Structure decline



    Waterlogging
    1; moderate
    2; high


    1; low
    2; moderate
    Uncommon



    Common; seasonal
    Increased trafficking, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for structure decline above
    -



    Increased ponding of water in lower areas
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion
    1; moderate near incised
    channels or streams
    Uncommon
    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased sediment load.
    Comments: Salt-affected land occurs between Kilmany and Nambrok, north of Clydebank; other occurrences are few and scattered
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