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Soils on Quaternary Unconsolidated Sediments

Qaf - Alluvial Fans - Fault Outwash | Qde - Depressions | Qya - Alluvium - Variable Soils |Q ym - Alluvium - Variable Soils (moist)

Qya - Alluvium - Variable Soils

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Alluvial variable soils - QyaThis unit consists of river deposits of gravel, sand, silts and clays along the main streams in the Shire. It is a very similar unit to Qym but has been 'separated from that unit on the basis of its drier climate. There are up to four terraces with the soil profile becoming more differentiated (i.e. duplex) with distance away from the streams. The unit is mainly used for grazing with occasional fodder crops. Waterlogging and flooding hazard limit other uses. The unit occupies 3.6% of the Shire and covers 33.0 km2. Being a variable unit, the 4 components do not appear throughout the System in a repeated pattern. There may be areas where only some of the components are present.

SOILS
The soils of component 1 (the most common component) are extremely variable ranging from sands to clays. As no meaningful soil description can be given at this scale, the description that follows is for duplex soils of a
higher terrace.

Red Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dy 3.41/CL, 15-40/Recent alluvium, 70-150

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Dark brown (10YR 3/4) when moist; clay loam; apedal & massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.8; clear boundary.
A21
10-20
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 5,/3) when moist; sandy clay loam; apedal & massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.3; diffuse boundary.
A22
20-25
Gravelly layer.
B
25-100
Bright yellowish brown (10YR 6/8) when moist; with abundant distinct red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 40 mm breaking down to a angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when slightly moist is firm; pH 5.3.
C
100+
Alluvial deposits - stratified clays, sands and gravel.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
3
4
91
3
3
3
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
500 - 760
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary; river deposits, gravels, sands & clays
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Alluvium of the southern creeks of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
321
Local relief (av.) m
1 - 3
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
3.3
Land form
Terrace 1
Terrace 2
Terrace 3
Terrace 4
Position on land form
-
-
-
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 4; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland (?)
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. radiata
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt and clay
Description
Dark brown soil, Uniform
texture (variable)
Yellow brown duplex soil
Yellow duplex soil, coarse
structure
Yellow duplex soil
Surface texture
Fine sandy clay loam
Sandy clay loam
Medium sandy clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate – Low
Moderate – Low
Moderate – Low
Moderate – Low
Depth (range) m
2
2
2
2
LAND USE
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Low lying areas receiving
drainage
Low permeability, weak surface structure, hard setting surface
Processes
Waterlogging, overland flow
Overland flow; movement of salts, subsurface flow, waterlogging
Forms
Stream bank erosion, gully
erosion
Stream bank erosion, gully erosion, compaction

Qaf - Alluvial Fans - Fault Outwash

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Alluvial fans falt outwash - QafThis unit consists of colluvial and alluvial outwash of gravel and sandy material from the Rowsley Fault along the eastern boundary of the Brisbane Ranges. The unit forms 0.1 of the survey area or 1.0 km2. It is used mainly for grazing and some cereal cropping. The area is highly erodible and needs careful management.

SOILS
As the soils are a product of wash from the Rowsley Fault Scarp, the upper slopes often have soils consisting of a number of unrelated alluvial/ colluvial layers.

A Typical Soil Profile is as follows:

Brown Shallow Uniform Soils - Weak Structure

Factual Key
Uc 1.25/LFS, 10-40/Alluvium Colluvium, 10-40


Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
D1
0-35
Dark brown (10YR 3/4) when moist; loamy fine sand; apedal single grained; consistence when slightly moist is loose; pH 6.0; clear boundary.
D2
35-50
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 8/3) when moist; loamy fine sand; weak sub-angular blocky 10 mm; consistence when slightly moist is loose; soft accumulations of organic matter 2%; pH 7.0; clear boundary.
D3
50-60
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; silty clay loam; moderate sub-angular blocky 4 mm; consistence when slightly moist is friable; soft accumulations of organic matter 2%; pH 7.5; clear boundary.
D4
60-90
Brownish black (7.5YR 3/1) when moist; clay; moderate sub-angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when dry is hard; pH 7.5; diffuse boundary.
D5
90-200
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; faint distinct yellow mottles; silty clay loam; moderate sub-angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when dry is very hard; soft accumulations of organic matter 1%; pH 8.5.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
60
40
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
500 – 610
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary fault aprons, gravel, sand
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Gently sloping, plain off the Rowsley fault
Elevation (range) m
240
Local relief (av.) m
7
Drainage pattern
Parallel
Drainage density km/km2
1.2
Land form
Plain
Position on land form
Upper slope
Lower slope
Slope (range) %, slope shape
2 – 6
1 - 3
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. microcarpa, E. leucoxylon, E. polyanthemos, E. goniocalyx, E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sediments
Description
Brown shallow uniform soil, weak structure
Red duplex soil, coarse structure, sodic
Surface texture
Clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate
Low
Depth (range) m
0.5
2
LAND USE
Grazing, some cereal cropping
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Structure, dispersibility, permeability, slope
Processes
Overland flow, sub-surface flow, movement of salts
Forms
Sheet, rill, gully, tunnel erosion

Qde - Depressions

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Depressions - QdeThis unit consists of swamps and depressions mainly in the central and southern parts of the Shire. The unit covers 0.85% of the survey area or 7.9 km2. It is presently used for grazing with some cereal cropping in dry years. The tendency to waterlogging particularly in winter limits more intensive use of these areas.

QDE Black Uniform Texture Soils Coarse Structure

Factual Key Ug 5.1/C, 20/Variable (generally basalt), 100+

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Brownish black (7.5YR 212) when moist with bright brown rootline oxidation; light medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B
20-100+
Brownish black (10YR 2/2) when moist; medium clay; strong angular blocky 10 mm; consistence when wet is very plastic; pH 6.0.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
635 – 711
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Recent sands, silts and clays
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Swamp & depressions in centre & south of area
Elevation (range) m
121
Local relief (av.) m
1
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Swamp and depressions
Position on land form
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1; Flat
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland
Dominant species
E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sands, silts & clays
Description
Mottled dark grey, yellow gradational soil & black clay soil, uniform texture, coarse structure
Surface texture
Light clay/clay
Permeability
Low
Depth (range) m
2
LAND USE
Grazing, occasional cropping (cereal)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slowly permeable soils
Processes
Waterlogging
Forms
Compaction


Qym - Alluvium - Variable Soils (moist)

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Alluvial variable soils (moist) - QymThis unit consists of alluvial terraces in the wetter northern part of the survey area. The unit comprises 0.5% of the Shire and covers 4.7 km2. There are up to four terraces each with different soils. Some of these terraces are subject to flooding which limits their use for anything other than grazing. Some parts of this unit are forested and there has also been some gold mining.

QYM Dark Yellowish Brown Gradational Soils

Factual Key Gn 2 /CL, 25-35/Alluvium, 200+

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-50
Dark brown (10YR 3/4) when moist; clay loam; weak sub-angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.0 gradual boundary.
B
30-200
Brown (7.5YR 4/6) when moist; with few faint red mottles; light clay; weak sub-angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.0.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
3
4
30
40
25
5
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
810 – 915
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary river deposits, gravels, sands & clays
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Alluvium of northern creeks of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
450 – 600
Local relief (av.) m
4
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Terrace 1
Terrace 2
Terrace 3
Terrace 4
Position on land form
-
-
-
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 2; Straight
1 – 3; Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. melanoxylon
E. obliqua, E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated river deposits
Description
Variable, uniform sands & gravels
Dark yellowish brown gradational soils
Brown gradational soils
Yellow duplex soils
Surface texture
Sand
Clay loam
Clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
High
High
High
High
Depth (range) m
>1
1.5
2
1.5
LAND USE
Grazing, recreationForestry, grazing, recreation, some urban subdivision, mining (past)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Low lying areas
Hard setting surfaces
Processes
Overland flow & regular flooding
Overland flow, subsurface flow
Overland flow
Forms
Stream bank erosion, gully erosion
Stream bank erosion, gully erosion
Sheet erosion, compaction
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