Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

Soils on Quaternary Unconsolidated Sediments

Qab - Terraces with Uniform Texture Soils on Holocene Sediments | Qaf - Fan-plain with mixed Uniform and Duplex Soils on Quaternary Sediments | Qah - Terraces with Duplex and Variable Uniform Texture Soils Quaternary Alluvium | Qao - Plains with Duplex Soils on Quaternary, or Older Sediments | Qau - Higher Terraces with Duplex Soils on Quaternary and Ordovician Sediments | Qde - Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on Recent Sediments | Qded - Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on recent sediments drier than Qde | Qsm - Valley floor with Uniform and Duplex Soils on Mixed Parent Materials | Qu - Lakeside Sandridge with Uniform Sand Soils on Recent Wind Blown Deposits | Qya - Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments | Qyad - Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments. Drier than Qya

Qya - Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments

Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments - QyaRiver deposits of gravels, sands, silts, and clays along the main streams in the north of the Shire. The unit occupies 0.6% of the Shire and covers 4.4 km2. The unit is variable.

Three different terraces are recognized though these do not occur in a repeated pattern and one or more may be absent at any given site. The oldest terrace has the greatest soil profile differentiation, the youngest the least.

Salting may occur in some areas, the salt having been transported by ground-water from the surrounding Tertiary and Ordovician sediments.

The unit is mainly used for grazing, with occasional fodder crops. Waterlogging and flooding hazard limit other uses.

SOILS
The soils of Component 2 (the most common component) are extremely variable, ranging from sands to clays. They are usually dark Um soils (clay loams and loams). As no meaningful soil description can be given at this scale, the description that follows is for duplex soils of a higher terrace.
Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dy 3.42/CL, 15-40 am/recent alluvium, 70-150 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Dark brown (10YR 3/4) when moist; clay loam; apedal and massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.8; clear boundary.
A21
10-20
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 5/3) when moist; sandy clay loam; apedal and massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 6.3; diffuse boundary.
A22
20-25
Gravelly layer.
B
25-100
Bright yellowish brown (10YR 6/8) when moist; with abundant distinct red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 40 mm breaking down to =angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when slightly moist is firm; pH 5.3.
C
100+
Alluvial deposits - stratified clays, sands and gravels.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
30
2
50
3
5
4
15
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual1600 - 680
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Alluvium of the northern creeks in the Shire
Elevation (range) m
240 - 360
Local relief (av.) m
5
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
5.7
Land form
Terraces
Stream channel
Position on land form
Higher terraces
Middle terrace
Lowest terrace
Stream bed and banks
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-5 ; Straight
0-2 ; Straight
0-2 ; Straight
-
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland (?)
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. radiata, some E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated river deposits
Description
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Dark uniform soils
(variable texture-mainly clay loams)
Uniform (variable) sands through to clay
Variable-from clayey to stony material
Factual key
Dy 3.42
Um 5.52 and others
Surface texture
Clay loam
Clay loam
Variable
-
Permeability
Moderate - low
Moderate - low
Variable
-
Depth (range) m
1.2 - 2.0
1.2 - 2.0
0.5 - 1.0
-
LAND USE
Grazing
Grazing, some market
gardens on larger areas
Grazing, recreation
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Low lying areas prone to flooding
Exposed surfaces
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, periodic waterlogging
Some accumulation of salts. Undercutting by stream, periodic waterlogging, overland flow
Forms
Minor sheet erosion
Siltation
Streambank erosion, salting, flooding

Qab - Terraces with Uniform Texture Soils on Holocene Sediments

Terraces with Uniform Texture Soils on Holocene Sediments - QabAlluvial flats and terraces associated with the Moorabool River, south of Maude. They have an area of 9 km2 or 1.3% of the Shire.

The most common soil is the dark, uniform, heavy textured soil which is found on the middle terrace. In some areas there are higher, sloping terraces which have red duplex soils, The middle terrace contains billabongs which are old river channels that were cut off when the river changed its course in the past. Components 3 & 4 and much of Component 2 are subject to flooding, but the frequency and intensity of flooding is variable. The middle and higher terraces are used for market gardening.

SOILS
The main soil type is found on Component 2.

Dark Uniform Soils of Medium or Heavy Texture

Factual Key: Ug 5.1/CL-MC, 5-20 cm/alluvium, 100-200 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-60
Brownish black (10YR 3/1) when moist, with grey mottles; medium clay; moderate subangular blocky 5 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.5; clear boundary.
B
60-80+
Black (10YR 2/1) when moist with yellow mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 4mm: consistence when moist is firm; pH 8.0.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
6
2
80
3
4
4
10
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 500 - 610
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Holocene river alluvium
Miocene sediments ?
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Terraces and flood plains along the Moorabool hills
Elevation (range) m
30 - 122
Local relief (av.) m
14
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
4.3
Land form
Higher terrace
Middle terrace and billabongs
River channel and terrace
Position on land form
Gentle upper slopes
Terrace
Billabong
Bottom
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-6 ; Convex
1-2 ; Straight
1-2 ; Concave
1-2 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open woodland
Dominant species
E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated materials
Description
Red duplex soils
Dark uniform soils of medium or
heavy texture
Dark gradational soils
Uniform soils (variable)
Factual key
Dr 2.1
Um / Uf
Gn 3.51
Uc
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Clay loam
Clay loam
Silty clay loam (variable)
Permeability
Moderate
Moderate-high
Low
-
Depth (range) m
1.0 - 2.0
1.0 - 2.0
0.8 - 1.2
-
LAND USE
Some farm houses
Cultivation (Market garden)
Water supply, wild life
conservation, recreation
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Low situation affected by flooding from river
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, periodic waterlogging
Sub-surface flow, overland flow,
periodic waterlogging
Overland flow
Forms
Very minor sheet erosion
Siltation
Siltation
Stream-bank erosion

Qaf - Fan-plain with mixed Uniform and Duplex Soils on Quaternary Sediments

Fan-Plain with Mixed Uniform and Duplex Soils on Quaternary Sediments - QafColluvial and alluvial outwash from the scarp of the Rowsley Fault along the eastern boundary at the northern end of the Shire. The total area of the unit is 4.2 km2, which represents 0.6% of the Shire.

The soils of the upper steeper, slope strongly reflect the geology of the Rowsley Scarp. In most cases this is mainly basalt and the soils are dark brown uniform or dark duplex soils. Further south, where limestone forms the scarp, alkaline red mottled yellow duplex soils occur. The lower, gentler, slopes being formed on a mix of colluvium and alluvium do not reflect the geology of the scarp as strongly and generally have red duplex and occasionally red mottled yellow, duplex soils.

The main land use is cropping and grazing. Gully erosion can be very severe in these soils, because the deep sodic deposits are subject to high-velocity flowing water from the escarpment.
SOILS
The soils on this unit are quite variable. The following description represents one of the more common soils of Component 1.

Dark Brown Shallow Uniform Clayey Soils - Weak Structure

Factual Key: Ug 5.3/CL -LMC, 10-20 cm/colluvium of basalt origin, 40-100 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-15
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; self-mulching medium clay; moderate angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when moist is firm and very plastic when wet; pH 6.5; clear boundary.
B
15-50
Brown (7.5YR 4/4) when moist; clay; weak subangular blocky 5 mm; consistence when moist is hard; 20% lime as soft accumulations; pH 8.5.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
60
2
40
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 500 - 560
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary fault aprons, gravel, sand and clay
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Gently sloping plain below the Rowsley Fault scarp
Elevation (range) m
240
Local relief (av.) m
7
Drainage pattern
Parallel
Drainage density km/km2
1.2
Land form
Plain
Position on land form
Upper slope
Lower slope
Slope (range) %, slope shape
2 – 6
l-3
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. microcarpa, E. leucoxylon E. polyanthemos,
E. goniocalyx
E, microcarpa, E. leucoxylon E. polyanthemos, E. goniocalyx
E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sediments
Description
Dark brown shallow uniform soils,
weak structure
Red duplex soils,
coarse structure, sodic
Factual key
Ug 5.31
Dr 3.23
Surface texture
Light clay to clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
Low
Clay loam
Depth (range) m
0.4 - 1.0
1.5 - 2.5
LAND USE
Grazing, some cereal cropping
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Poor soil structure, sodic soils - dispersibility, low permeability, long elopes
Processes
Overland flow, sub-surface flow, movement of salts
Forms
Moderate sheet, rill, gully and tunnel erosion

Qde - Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on Recent Sediments

Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on recent sediments - QdeSwamps and depressions mainly in the northern part of the Shire. The total of only 1.0 km2, represents 0.1% of the Shire. The tendency of the land to be waterlogged or flooded, particularly in winter, limits its usefulness for anything more intensive than grazing.

SOILS
The soils are usually dark, with a high content of organic matter at the surface. Almost all of these depressions occur with the Tgn and the soils have a higher sand content in the topsoil than the Qde depressions in the basalt to the south. The following is a common soil.
Mottled Gley Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dg 2.41/organic loam, 25 cm/unconsolidated sediments 100+ cm. 01 N

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
0
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 2/2) when moist; organic loam; moderate subangular blocky 3 mm; consistence when wet is "spongy" non plastic; pH 5.5; clear boundary.
A1
10-25
Brownish black (2.5YR 3/1) when moist; loam; weak subangular blocky 3 mm; consistence when wet is slightly plastic; pH 6.5; clear boundary.
A2
25-45
Dark greyish yellow (2.5YR 4/2) when moist with coarse yellow mottles; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when wet is slightly plastic and "spewy"; pH 7.0; clear boundary.
B
45-100+
Dark greyish yellow (2.5YR 4/2) when moist with yellow mottles; medium clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm (possibly a coarse primary structure exists also); consistence when wet is plastic; pH 6.5.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 585 - 635
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Recent sands, silts and clays
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Swamps and depressions in northern, wetter parts of the area
Elevation (range) m
240 - 565
Local relief (av.) m
1
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Swamps and depressions
Slope (range) %, slope shape
0-2; Flat
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Sedgeland
Dominant species
Lepidosperma longitudinale
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sands, silts and clays
Description
Mottled grey duplex soils
Factual key
Gn or Ug
Surface texture
Light clay/clay
Permeability
Low
Depth (range) m
1.0 - 2.5
LAND USE
Grazing, occasional cropping (cereal)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slowly permeable soils, seasonal high watertables
Processes
Periodic waterlogging
Forms
Surface compaction

Qu - Lakeside Sandridge with Uniform Sand Soils on Recent Wind Blown Deposits

Lakeside Sandridge with Uniform Sand Soils on recent wind blown deposits - QuLakeside sandridges associated with Qde and Res, in the north of the Shire (Durdidwarrah Area). This unit covers 0.312 km2, representing 0.04% of the survey area.

The Reservoirs (Res) are considered to have been larger areas of Qde which were converted to water storage. The areas of Qde, including those now Res, are presumably the source of sand for these sandridges which have built up on their south-eastern side. Where areas of Qde are surrounded by sand, the depressions are regarded as secondary, having formed subsequent to the deposition of the sand from a larger associated depression. These secondary depressions probably indicate further wind movement of the sand after initial deposition.

SOILS
The soil parent material is sand, producing a deep uniform profile. These soils are free drained and their fertility is low. If exposed they can be wind eroded. The colour of the deep sands may be reddish or yellowish.
Yellow Sand Soils - Uniform Texture

Factual Key: Uc 2.21/sand; 10-25 cm/loose sand; 70 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-7
Brownish grey (101R 4/1) when moist; sand; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is soft; pH 6.0; clear boundary.
A2
7-25
Greyish yellow brown (10YR 5/2) when moist (10YR 7/1) when dry); sand; apedal singlegrained;' consistence when dry is soft; pH 5.5;
diffuse boundary.
B1
25-45
Dull orange (7.5YR 6/4) when moist; sand; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is soft; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B2
45-70
Dull reddish brown (5YR 5/4) when moist; sand; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is slightly hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
C
70-170
Bright brown (7.5YR 5/6) when moist; sand; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is soft; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
D
170-200+
Buried clay similar to Tgn.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 600 - 630
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Recent, sands
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
'Lakeside sandridges' to the north of the Shire (Durdidwarrah Area)
Elevation (range) m
350 - 365
Local relief (av.) m
1 - 2
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
Land form
Lakeside sandridges
Position on land form
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 - 3 Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open Forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, A. melonoxylon, A. mearnsii, Banksia marginata, Pteridium esculentum
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sand
Description
Yellow sand soils, uniform texture
Factual key
Uc2
Surface texture
Sand
Permeability
High
Depth (range) m
1 - 2
LAND USE
Grazing, Forestry, Water Supply
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Low water holding capacity; Low nutrient holding capacity
Processes
Leaching
Forms
Fertility Decline

Qah - Terraces with Duplex and Variable Uniform Texture Soils Quaternary Alluvium

Terraces with Duplex and Variable Uniform Texture Soils on Quaternary Alluvium - QahFairly level terraces on older alluvium associated with the Leigh and Barwon Rivers in the south of the Shire. There are a total of 9.9 km2 and this represents 1.4% of the Shire. The higher terraces, that represent Component 1, are the only ones which seem unlikely to flood. Most of Inverleigh is built on these terraces; the lower terraces are used for sports grounds, grazing, cropping and other activities tolerant of seasonal waterlogging and occasional floods.

SOILS
The soils of the lower terraces are fairly undifferentiated, mainly consisting of blackish brown loams to clayey soils with isolated sand areas. The main soil of Component 1, the higher terraces is described below.

Red Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dr 2.23/SL-L, 30-45 cm/alluvial sands and clays. 60-100 cm.

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-5
Dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) when moist; loamy sand to sandy loam; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is loose; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
A2
5-45
Brown (7.YR 4/4) when moist; loamy sand to sandy loam; apedal single-grained; consistence when dry is slightly hard; pH 6.5; abrupt boundary.
B2
45-60
Dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) when moist; with brownish black (when moist) cutans (clay skins) on the outside of peds; medium clay; medium to strong blocky structure 50 mm; consistence when moist is very firm; pH 8.0; abrupt boundary.
BC
60-75
Bright brown (7.5YR 5/8) when moist; with common distinct red and grey mottles; light medium clay; moderate blocky structure 20 mm; consistence when moist is firm; often with hard accumulations of lime up to 50%, 20 mm; pH 9.0.
C
75+
Alluvium - brown clay with some lime and ironstone pebbles at depth.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
45
2
35
3
5
4
15
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 510-570
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary alluvium
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Broad alluvial flats in the south of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
30 - 80
Local relief (av.) m
5
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Terrace 2
Terrace 1
Depressions and billabongs in Terrace-1
River channel bed, banks and levees
Position on land form
Higher terraces
Lower terraces.
Low lying wet areas
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
0-3 ; Straight
0-2 : Straight
0-2 ; Concave
0-2 ; Concave
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. leucoxylon
E. camaldulensis
E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt and clay
Description
Red duplex soils - some dark duplex
soils
Dark uniform loams
Dark clay soils
Channel - variable; levee - uniform fine
sands
Factual key
Dr 2.23 and Dd 2.13
Um 1.2
Dd 2.43. Ug. Um
Uc 1.23
Surface texture
Loamy sand and sandy loam
Loam - clay loam
Clay loam to clay
Variable
Permeability
Moderate
High
Low
-
Depth (range) m
0.5 - 1.0
0.2 - 0.8
0.8 - 1.5
-
LAND USE
Residential, grazing, some cropping
Cropping, grazing, sporting facilities (flood hazard)
Grazing
Recreation
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Limited permeability
Low situation affected by flooding from river
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, periodic waterlogging
Overland flow, periodic waterlogging
Forms
Minor sheet erosion on exposed soil
Siltation
Streambank erosion

Qyad - Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments. Drier than Qya

Terraces with Variable Soils on Quaternary Sediments.  Drier than Qya - QyadRiver and stream deposits of clay, silt, sand and gravel in the southern half of the Shire. The 6.7 km2 total area of the unit represents 0.9% of the Shire.

River channel, banks and terraces are the landforms comprising this unit. The special arrangement of these and the number of terraces present at any locality is very variable within the unit. The soil profile shows greatest differentiation on the higher, older terraces and least on the lower, younger ones.

The higher terraces are mainly used for grazing, with some fodder crops and market gardening where the terraces are wider. Waterlogging and flooding on the lower terraces limit their usefulness for purposes other than passive recreation.

SOILS
The soils of Component-2 (the most common component) are variable ranging from loams to clays. As no meaningful soil description can be given at this scale, the description that follows is for duplex soils of a higher terrace.

Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dy 3.41/CL, 15-40 cm/alluvium, 70-150 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Dark brown (10YR 3/4) when moist; clay loam; apedal and massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 4.8; clear boundary.
A2
10-20
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 5/3) when moist; sandy clay loam; apedal and massive; consistence when slightly moist is friable; pH 4.3; diffuse boundary.
B
20-100
Bright yellowish brown (10YR 4/8) when moist; with abundant distinct red or yellow brown mottles: medium clay; strong angular blocky 40 mm breaking down to an angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when slightly moist is firm; pH 5.3.
C
100+
Alluvial deposits - stratified clays, sands and gravel.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
30
2
50
3
5
4
15
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 500 - 600
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary alluvium
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Scattered occurrences of alluvium in centre and south of Shire
Elevation (range) m
30- 260
Local relief (av.) m
10
Drainage pattern
1.
Drainage density km/km2
5.2
Land form
Terraces
Terrace
Stream channel
Position on land form
Higher terraces
Middle terrace
Low
Lowest
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-5; straight
2-3 ; straight
1-2 ; straight
Variable
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland (?)
Dominant species
E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated alluvial Sediments
Description
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Dark uniform soils (variable)
Uniform - variable sands through to clays
Variable - from clayey to stony
materials
Factual key
Dy 3.42
Um 5.52 and others
Uc - Ug
-
Surface texture
Clay, loam
Clay loam
Variable
-
Permeability
Moderate - low
Moderate - low
Variable
-
Depth (range) m
1 - 2
1 - 2
1
-
LAND USE
Grazing
Grazing with some market gardens
Recreation
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Low situation affected by flooding from river
Exposed soil surfaces
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, periodic waterlogging
Undercutting by stream, periodic waterlogging
Forms
Minor sheet erosion
Siltation
Stream-bank erosion

Qau - Higher Terraces with Duplex Soils on Quaternary and Ordovician Sediments

Higher Terraces with Duplex Soils on Quaternary and Ordovician Sediments - QauHigher terraces adjacent to the lower alluvial terraces of Qyad, occurring east of Maude, on the Moorabool River. The 1.0 km2 total area represents only 0.1% of the Shire.

1.5 to 2.5 metres of soil and unconsolidated material overlies sedimentary rock and appears to be alluvium deposited on terraces cut into the Ordovician sediments. It is the presence of sedimentary rock close to the surface which separates the terraces of this unit from those of Qyad.

The gentle slopes, of 1-3%, are used for cropping and grazing. The unit is not flood prone.

SOILS
Neither of the components show any signs of erosion except for minor sheet erosion during fallow periods. The soils are moderately sodic - especially the lower component.

Red Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Dy 3.42/FSL, 40-70 cm/alluvium, 100-150 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-50
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; hydrophobic fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is soft; pH 5.5; clear boundary.
A2
50-60
Yellowish brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is soft; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
B
60-100+
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) when moist; with red mottles; heavy clay; strong subangular blocky 20 mm; consistence when slightly moist
is extremely firm; contains some rounded pebbles; pH 8.0.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
60
2
40
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 580 - 600
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Quaternary alluvium on Ordovician sediments
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Cut and fill terraces east of Maude adjacent to the Moorabool River
Elevation (range) m
65-90
Local relief (av.) m
15
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
3.0
Land form
Terraces
Position on land form
Upper
Lower
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-4 ; Straight
1-2 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland ?
Dominant species
E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated river deposits
Description
Red mottled yellow duplex soils
Yellow mottled yellow duplex soils
Factual key
Dy 3.42
Dy 3.43
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Sandy loam
Permeability
Moderate
Moderate
Depth (range) m
1.0 - 2.0
0.8 - 1.5
LAND USE
Cropping and grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Processes
Overland flow
Forms
Minor sheet erosion

Qsm - Valley floor with Uniform and Duplex Soils on Mixed Parent Materials

Valley floor with Uniform and Duplex Soils on Mixed Parent Materials - QsmA wide valley floor containing large sand deposits with scattered occurrences of basalt (Qbgd) and Tertiary sediments (Tgs) and with alluvium in the depressions (Qyad). All these components are too small to be mapped separately at this scale. There are three occurrences of the unit - two in the south-west and one in the south-east corner of the Shire. The total area of 8.8 km2, represents 1.2% of the study area.

Although the macro-relief of the valley floor is fairly level, on a micro-scale, it has many short, sharp slopes and rises. The sandy ridges and hummocks occur randomly across this landscape. Extractive industries are slowly removing many of the larger sand deposits. Unless quickly revegetated, the loose sands are easily washed or blown away.

SOILS
Soil descriptions for the basalt, Tertiary and alluvial soils can be found in units Qbgd, Tgs and Qyad respectively. The soil described below occurs on the sandy ridges and hummocks (Component 1).

Brown Sand Soils - Uniform Texture

Factual Key: Uc 1.21/LS-S, 10-25 cm/unconsolidated sand, 50-80 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Dark greyish brown (10YR 4/2) when moist; loamy sand; apedal and single-grained; consistence when slightly moist is loose; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B
20-60
Brown (7.5YR 5/4) when moist; sand; apedal and single-grained; consistence when moist is loose; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
C
60-100+
Light brown (7.5YR 6/4) when moist sand; apedal and single-grained; consistence when moist is loose; pH 6.5.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
60
2
15
3
10
4
10
5
5
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 560 - 580
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Holocene sand
Pleistocene basalt
Tertiary unconsolidated
sediments
Holocene alluvium
Tertiary ?
ferrocrete
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Wide creek valley with a broad and generally level but hummocky floor; south of survey area
Elevation (range) m
30 - 107
Local relief (av.) m
7
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
2.8
Land form
Sandy ridges, scarps and
hummocks
Level areas and
rock outcrops
Lower lying areas
between hummocks
Drainage line
Outcrop
Position on land form
Upper slope
Mid slope
Lower slope
Mid slope
Slope (range) %, slope shape
2-15 ; Convex
1-2 ; Convex
1-3 ; Straight
1-2 ; Straight
3-8 ; Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland ?
Dominant species
E. viminalis
E. camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated sands
In-situ weathered rock
Unconsolidated sediments
Unconsolidated sediments
Unconsolidated sediments
Description
Brown sand soils, uniform
texture
Mottled yellow duplex soils,
coarse structure
Mottled red duplex soils
Uniform soils (variable)
Mottled brown duplex soils
Factual key
Uc 1.21
Dd 2.43
Dr 3.22
Uc - Urn
Db 2.22
Surface texture
Loamy sand
Clay loam
Fine sandy loam
Silty clay loam
(variable)
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
High
Moderate-low
High-moderate
High
Moderate
Depth (range) m
0.7 - 1.5
0.5 - 1.0
0.5 - 1.5
1.0 - 2.0
0.3 - 0.80
LAND USE
Sand extraction
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Nutrient holding capacity
Hard setting surface, slowly
permeable sub-soils
Slope gradient
Slope position, flooding
Slope gradient
Processes
Leaching
Overland flow, periodic
waterlogging
Overland flow
Waterlogging, stream-bank
undercutting
Overland flow
Forms
Nutrient decline
Compaction of surfaces, low
sheet erosion
Low sheet erosion
Stream-bank erosion
Moderate sheet erosion

Qded - Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on recent sediments drier than Qde

Depressions with Heavy Clay Soils on recent sediments drier than Qde - QdedSwamps and depressions in the southern part of the Shire. There are only a few small areas, totalling 2.7 km2 or 04% of the Shire.

The tendency to waterlogging and seasonal ponding of water, limits any intensive use of these areas. They are generally used for light grazing.

SOILS
The soils are usually dark near the surface but may be lighter or gleyed at depth. The following describes the most common soil type.

Black Uniform Clay Soils - Coarse Structure

Factual Key: Ug 5.1/C, 20 cm/variable (generally basalt), 100+ cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Brownish black (7.5YR 2/2) when moist with bright brown rootline oxidation; light medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B
20-100+
Brownish black (10YR 2/2) when moist; medium clay; strong angular blocky 10 mm; consistence when wet is very plastic; pH 6.0.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 500 - 600
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Recent clays, silts and sands
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Swamps and depressions in the centre and south of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
80 - 230
Local relief (av.) m
1
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Swamps and depressions
Position on land form
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-2 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Tussock and sedgeland
Dominant species
SOIL
Parent material
Unconsolidated clays, silts and sands
Description
Variable, but mainly clayey soils, e.g. dark uniform clay soils, coarse structure
Factual key
Ug 5.15
Surface texture
Clay
Permeability
Low
Depth (range) m
2
LAND USE
Grazing, occasional cropping (cereal)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slowly permeable toils, seasonal high watertables
Processes
Periodic waterlogging
Forms
Surface compaction

Qao - Plains with Duplex Soils on Quaternary, or Older Sediments

Plains with Duplex Soils on Quaternary, or Older Sediments - QaoUndulating to gently sloping plains on older alluvium in the southern part of the Shire, particularly near Inverleigh. The total area of 9.0 km2, represents 1.3% of the study area.

There are some similarities between Qao and the Tertiary plains of Tgs. Both are on fairly old deposits of unconsolidated material, although the Tgs deposits are older, and both have ironstone on higher areas.

The main land use is grazing, with cereal cropping in some areas. The higher parts of the town of Inverleigh are located on the unit.

SOILS
There are two common soil types - the mottled yellow duplex soils of the higher land (Components 1 & 2) and the red duplex soils of the lower or flatter land (Component 3) - the latter often have dark clay skins around the peds of the subsoil clay. The soils of Component 2 are described below, while those for Component 3 are similar to those described for unit Qah.

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; hydrophobic, sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
A2
10-30
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 5/3) when moist; sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 6.5; abrupt boundary.
B
30-100+
Bright yellowish brown (10YR 6/6) when moist with many red or yellow mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 7.5

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
10
2
45
3
45
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 510 - 570
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 13
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Older alluvium (Quaternary - Tertiary?)
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Undulating plains in the south of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
55 - 85
Local relief (av.) m
15
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
0.7
Land form
Undulating plain
Position on land form
Crest
Mid-slope
Lower elope
Slope (range) %, slope shape
0.3 ; Convex
2-5 ; Straight
1-2 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. leucoxylon
SOIL
Parent material
Ferricrete and ferruginous sandy gravels
Unconsolidated older alluvium - clay, sand and gravel
Description
Gravelly red mottled yellow duplex soils fine
structure
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Red duplex soils, medium to coarse structure
Factual key
Dy 3.42 or Dy 3.43
Dy 3.43
Dr 2.25
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Fine sandy loam
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate to low
Depth (range) m
0.3 - 0.9
0.8 - 1.5
0.5 - 1.0
LAND USE
Grazing, gravel extraction
Grazing, residential, cereal cropping
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Limited permeability
Processes
Overland flow
Forms
Minor sheet erosion on exposed soil
Page top