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Soils on Tertiary Unconsolidated and Consolidated Sediments

Qbb - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Duplex Soils | Qbc - Quaternary Basalt - Black Cracking Soil | Qbm - Quaternary Basalt Mixture | Qbr - Quaternary Basalt - Red Gradational Soils | Qbs - Quaternary Basalt - Stony Rises | Qbt - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Gradational Soil | Qvc - Quaternary Volcanic Cone | Tbr - Tertiary Basalt - Gentle

Qvc - Quaternary Volcanic Cone

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Volcanic Cone - QvcThere are about 24 volcanic cones spread throughout the Shire of Ballan ranging from quite steep conical hills to small rises with little local relief. This unit occupies 1.13% of the survey area; an area of 10.5 km2. These areas may be suitable sources of scoria or bluestone depending on the nature of the material in the cones. Some of the cones are under forest cover although most of them are used for grazing.

QVC Stony Red Gradational Soils

Factual Key Gn 4.11/CL, 5-25/Weathering basalt, scoria or tuff, 30-90

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-25
Very dark reddish-brown (2.5YR 2/4) when moist; clay loam; weak sub-angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when dry is slightly hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B
25-45
Dark reddish-brown (2.5YR 3/4) when moist; clay; strong sub-angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when slight moist is friable; 15% stones 10 cm (parent material); pH 6.5; diffuse boundary.
C
45+
Weathering parent material 80% stones with clay as for B horizon.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
500 – 965
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene; basalt, scoria tuff
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Scattered volcanic cones
Elevation (range) m
600
Local relief (av.) m
60
Drainage pattern
Radial & Shut flow (Poorly developed channels
Drainage density km/km2
Land form
Volcanic cone
Position on land form
Slope and crest
Slope (range) %, slope shape
5 – 40; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. radiata
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Stony red gradational soil
Surface texture
Clay loam
Permeability
High
Depth (range) m
1
LAND USE
Grazing, forestry
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Steep slopes
Processes
Overland flow, leaching
Forms
Hill and sheet erosion, nutrient decline

Qbb - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Duplex Soils

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Duplex Soil - QbbThis unit is similar to Qbt except that it describes the scarps and creek flats of the grey duplex soil rather than the scarps of the brown duplex soils. The rainfall is generally lower as the unit occurs further away from the Great Dividing Range. The unit covers 2.05% of the survey area or 19.1 km2. It is used for grazing and is not suitable for any more intensive use because of steep slopes and flooding hazard. In some areas, component 2 is missing and component 1 may take the form of near vertical scarps.

QBB Shallow Brown Duplex Soils

Factual Key Db 1.11/CL, 20-40/Basalt,10-45

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Brownish black (7.5YR 3/2) when moist; clay loam; weak sub-angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when dry is slightly hard; 20% stones 8cm of parent material; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
B
20-30
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; medium clay; moderate to strong angular blocky 4 mm; consistence when dry is hard; 80% atones 30 cm of parent material & 5% of buckshot; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
R
30+
Weathering basalt

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
50
50
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
650 – 670
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Scarp beside main creek including channel
Elevation (range) m
330
Local relief (av.) m
45
Drainage pattern
-
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
-
Land form
Scarp with lock rock outcrop
Creek bed
Position on land form
Slope
Flood plain
Slope (range) %, slope shape
13 ; Convex
2; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Unconsolidated sedimentary & in-situ weathered rock
Description
Shallow brown duplex or gradational soils
Black clay soil, uniform texture, coarse structure
Surface texture
Clay loam
Clay
Permeability
High
Low
Depth (range) m
1
1.5
LAND USE
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slope, hard setting surfaces
Poorly drained site, low permeability
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, waterlogging
Forms
Sheet and rill erosion
Streambank erosion, compaction

Qbc - Quaternary Basalt - Black Cracking Clay Soil

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt - Black Cracking Clay Soil - QbcThis unit consists of a black cracking clay soil on a gently undulating basalt plain in the south-western corner of the Shire near Morrisons. It is used mainly for cereal cropping and grazing. The heavy clay soil retains moisture well but is also difficult to work into a fine seed bed. The unit generally has a low erosion hazard, and could be used for more intensive uses. The unit covers 3.5 km2 or 0.35% of the survey area.

QBC Black Clay Soils, Uniform Texture - Self-Mulching

Factual Key Ug 5.14/LC-MC, 10-30/Basalt, 80-160

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20Black (10YR 2/1) when moist; medium clay; strong angular blocky 15 mm; consistence when moist is very firm; pH 7.0; clear boundary.
B
20-80Brownish black (10YR 3/1) when moist; heavy clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when wet, very plastic; occasional basalt stones and boulders; pH 8.5; diffuse boundary.
C
80-120Grey (2.5YR 4/0) when moist; heavy clay; strong angular blocky 1 mm; consistence when wet is very plastic; occasional basalt stones and boulders; pH 8.0.
R
Basalt rock at variable depth.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
650 – 700
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Slightly dissected plain
Elevation (range) m
350
Local relief (av.) m
5
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.7
Land form
Plain
Position on land form
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
4 ; Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Dominant species
( ? )
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Black clay soil, uniform texture, coarse structure
Surface texture
Heavy clay
Permeability
Moderate
Depth (range) m
1.5
LAND USE
Cropping (cereal), occasional grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slope
Processes
Overland flow
Forms
Sheet erosion

Qbm - Quaternary Basalt Mixture

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt Mixture - QbmThis unit consists of a mixture of the two types of red gradational soils and poorer grey sodic duplex soils. The red gradational soils are usually in better drained positions in the landscape. There are only a few locations of this unit in the survey area, mainly in the west central part of the Shire around Gordon. The unit covers 6.0 km2 or 0.65% of the survey area.

SOILS
The most common soils of this land system are the red soils of components 1 & 2. The Gn 3.11 soils of component 1 are the better structured soils for cropping - a typical profile is described in the land system description for Qbr. A typical profile description for component 2 is as follows:

QBM Dark Red Gradational Soils Fine Structure

Factual Key Gn 3.21/L-CL, 15-40/Weathered basalt,100-400

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-30
Dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) when moist; loam apedal, hardsetting; pH 5.8; clear boundary.
B1
30-60
Dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) when moist; clay loam weak sub-angular blocky 3 mm; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
B2
60-150
Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) when moist; clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; pH 5.5; friable; fine buckshot concretions 1%.
R
150+
Weathering basalt.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
3
34
33
33
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
800 – 840
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Slightly dissected plain north of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
280
Local relief (av.) m
4
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
2.3
Land form
Undulating plain
Position on land form
Crest and upper slope
Mid slope
Lower slope and depression
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 - 6; Convex
2 – 7; Straight
1 – 2; Concave
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. obliqua, E. radiata
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Red gradational soil, fine structure
Dark red gradational soil, fine structure
Mottled yellow sodic duplex soil, coarse structure
Surface texture
Clay loam
Loam
Clay loam
Permeability
High
High
Moderate – Low
Depth (range) m
2
1.5
1.5
LAND USE
Cropping, grazing (potatoes)
Cropping (cereal), grazing, cropping (potatoes)
Grazing, cropping
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slope, exposure
Slope, hard setting surfaces
Low permeability, hard setting surfaces
Processes
Leaching, overland flow
Leaching, overland flow
Waterlogging
Forms
Sheet erosion, nutrient decline
Compaction, sheet erosion, nutrient decline
Compaction

Qbr - Quaternary Basalt - Red Gradational Soils

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt - Red Gradational Soils - QbrThis unit contains some of the best agricultural soils in the State and is generally used for potato cropping although it is highly versatile and could be used for a wide range of agricultural products. The Shire of Ballan does not contain very much high quality agricultural land and this unit covers only 13.0 km2 or 1.4% of the survey area

QBR Red Gradational Soils Fine Structure

Factual Key Gn 3.11/CL, 15-30/Basalt, 100-400

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Very dark reddish brown (5YR 2/3) when moist; clay loam; strong crumb; consistence when moist is very friable; pH 6.5; diffuse boundary.
B1
20-50
Very dark reddish brown (5YR 2/4) when moist; light clay; strong sub-angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when moist is friable; pH 6.3; diffuse boundary.
B2
50-150
Dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/3) when moist; light medium clay; moderate angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when moist is friable; small fragments of obsidian (?) 5%; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
R
150+
Weathering basalt.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
96
4
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
780 – 840
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Undulating plains north of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
660
Local relief (av.) m
5
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.6
Land form
Undulating plain
Position on land form
Gentle slope
Depression
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 – 6; Convex
1 – 2; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. radiata, E. obliqua
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock and unconsolidated sediments
Description
Red gradational soil, fine structure
Mottled yellow duplex soil, coarse structure
Surface texture
Clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
High
Moderate – Low
Depth (range) m
2
1.5
LAND USE
Cropping (potatoes), grazing
Waterlogging
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slopes
Low permeability, hard setting surfaces
Processes
Overland flow, leaching
Waterlogging
Forms
Sheet erosion, erosion, nutrient decline
Compaction

Qbs - Quaternary Basalt - Stony Rises

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt - Stony Rises - QbsThis unit consists of the stony rises of the basalt plain. There are only a few locations of this unit within the Shire such as south of Gordon and Myrniong. The unit covers approximately 1.3 km2 and occupies 0.141 of the survey area. The presence of surface basalt boulders limits the uses of this area to grazing or tree crops.

SOILS
The soils of this unit are generally very shallow (Um). When soil fills deep crevices in the rock, a Gn (as described) or a Db soil may develop. In extreme cases, a grey heavy clay (D22) may be found.

QBS Stony Shallow Red Gradational Soils

Factual Key Gn 3.11/L-LC, 5-40/Basalt, 5-70

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-15
Brownish black (5YR 3/2); when moist; gravelly loam; weak sub-angular blocky 5 mm; consistence when moist is friable; 51 small stones (basalt); pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B
15+
Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) when moist; clay loam to light clay; strong angular blocky l mm; consistence when moist is friable; 40-60% stones (basalt); pH 6.0.
In many instances the B horizon is only present where the soil is deep in crevices in the basalt.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
760 – 800
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Scattered low stony rises in the north of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
500
Local relief (av.) m
1
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Stony rises
Position on land form
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-2 ; Concave scarps, straight tops
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Woodland
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. obliqua, E. radiata, E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Red shallow stony gradational soil
Surface texture
Clay loam
Permeability
High
Depth (range) m
0.8
LAND USE
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slope, shallow, permeable soils
Processes
Overland flow, leaching
Forms
Sheet erosion, nutrient decline

Qbt - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Gradational Soil

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Quaternary Basalt - Scarps of Gradational Soil - QbtThis unit consists of fairly moist basalt scarps with red gradational soils alongside main streams in the survey area and the small areas of black uniform textured soils. There are only isolated occurrences of this unit covering 0.4 km2 or 0.04% of the survey area. The unit is mainly used for grazing and the steep slopes of the scarps and flooding of the creek flats are limitations to more intensive uses

QBT Red Shallow Gradational Soils

Factual Key Gn 3.11/CL-L, 10-25/Basalt, 30-200

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) when moist; clay loam; weak sub-angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is friable; pH 7.0; diffuse boundary.
B
20-70
Very dark reddish brown (5YR 2/4) when moist; light clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is friable; pH 5.9; gradual boundary.
B/C
70-100
Very dark reddish brown (5YR 2/4) when moist; light clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is friable; 50% weathering basalt.
R
100+
Weathering basalt.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
2
50
50
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
810 – 890
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Pleistocene, basalt
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Scarp and alluvial flats beside main creek
Elevation (range) m
550
Local relief (av.) m
15
Drainage pattern
-
Drainage density km/km2
-
Land form
Scarp
Creek bed
Position on land form
Slope
Flood plain
Slope (range) %, slope shape
13 ; Convex
2 : Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
Basalt
Description
Red shallow gradational soil
Black uniform-textured soil, coarse structure
Surface texture
Clay loam
Clay
Permeability
Moderate – High
Low
Depth (range) m
1
>1
LAND USE
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slope, hard setting surfaces
Poor drainage, low permeability
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow, waterlogging
Forms
Sheet and rill erosion
Stream bank erosion, compaction

Tbr - Tertiary Basalt - Gentle

Land Capability Study - Ballan - Land Unit - Tertiary Basalt - Gentle - TbrThis unit consists of an undulating basalt plain between Myrniong and Greendale and is part of the Ballan Sunkland. The unit comprises 1.67% of the survey area and covers 15.5 km2. The unit is used mainly for grazing but can be used for occasional cropping. The soil types are quite different from the steeper Tbs unit.

Better Drained Dark Brown Mottled Duplex Soils Areas

Factual Key Dd 2.12/CL, 10-25/Basalt, 80-150

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-20
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; clay loam; moderate angular blocky 5mm; consistence when dry is hard; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
B21
20-40
Dark brown (10YR 3/3) when moist; faint and few yellowish brown mottles; heavy clay; moderate angular blocky 1mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.5; clear boundary.
B22
40-60+
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 4/3) when moist; common and distinct yellow mottles; heavy clay; strong angular blocky 3mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 7.0.

Wetter Areas Yellow Mottled Dark Sodic Duplex Soil Coarse Structure

Factual Key Dd 2.13/CL, 10-40/Basalt, 80-200.

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 2/3) when moist; clay loam; weak sub-angular blocky 10mm; consistence when slightly moist is firm; Iron oxide stains on root channels 30%; pH 6.0; abrupt boundary.
B21
10-30
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; few but distinct yellow mottles; heavy clay; strong prismatic 50mm, breaking down to strong angular blocky 3mm; consistence when dry is very hard; buckshot gravel 20%, 3mm; pH 6.5; clear boundary.
B22
30-100+
Dull yellowish brown (10YR 4/3) when moist; common and distinct yellow mottles; heavy clay; strong angular blocky 3mm: consistence when moist is very firm; buckshot gravel 5%, 3 mm; pH 8.0

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
685 – 736
Temperature(av.) C
-
Seasonal growth limitations
-
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Tertiary basalts
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Undulating plains between Bacchus Marsh and Ballan south of Greendale fault-line (Ballan Sunkland)
Elevation (range) m
450 – 460
Local relief (av.) m
10
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
0.4
Land form
Undulating Plain
Position on land form
-
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1 – 5 ; Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest (?)
Dominant species
E. ovata
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
In better drained situation, dark brown mottled duplex soil is present, otherwise mottled dark duplex soil, coarse structure
Surface texture
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate
Depth (range) m
1
LAND USE
Grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Slopes
Processes
Overland flow
Forms
Sheet erosion
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