Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

White butterfly bush (Buddleja asiatica)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Buddleja asiatica Lour.
Common name(s):

white butterfly bush

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

“Fairly widespread weed in moist lowland areas” (Starr et al. 2003). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘Ōh a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Alt[itudes] 200-2000m. Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation…primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200m…a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips. It has a wide altitudinal tolerance, occurring from 80 to 2900m altitude” (PIER, undated). “Distributed in outer Himalayas ascending up to 1500m commonly found in degraded, habitats like landslips, mined areas, ravines, deserted taungyas, etc.” (Vasistha and Soni 1989).


Potential distribution

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Freshwater wetland (permanent); treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; high altitude wetland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest

Colours indicate possibility of Buddleja asiatica infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
maps
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“Shrub, undershrub or sometimes small tree, 0.80-7m. high” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “A pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips” (PIER, undated).
Major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
M
2. Reduce tourism?“Shrub, undershrub or sometimes small tree, 0.80-7m. high” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “A pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips” (PIER, undated).
Some recreational uses affected.
MH
M
3. Injurious to people?“Branchlets terete or nearly so, densely stellate-puescent or –wooly with white, grey or fulvous hairs…Calyx camanulate, 1.3-4.5mm. long, outside stellate-pubesent or –tomentose…Corolla white [with] outside densely or less often sparsely stellate-tomentose” (Leeuwenberg 1983).Also not described as injurious in Spencer (2002) or PEIR (undated).
No effect, no prickles, no injuries.
L
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?“In urban settings, B. davidii [a related species] can be found growing in rough poor stony sites such as railway embankments, kerb edges on roadways, demolition sites, and on crumbling masonry. We get glimpses of them peeping up from piles of rubble or clinging to the most precarious, precipitous chimneybreasts, cracked mortar, and gutters. Buddlejas thrive under these seemingly hostile conditions” (Stuart 2006).
May be similar to the related species. May cause structural damage to site and/or obliteration of the heritage/cultural feature.
H
ML
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers” (PIER, undated). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Alt[itudes] 200-2000m. Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983).
Likely to only grow on the banks of rivers and not in the middle of waterway. Therefore little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
ML
6. Impact water quality?In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers” (PIER, undated). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Alt[itudes] 200-2000m. Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983).
Likely to only grow on the banks of rivers and not in the middle of waterway. No reported effect on dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
ML
7. Increase soil erosion?“Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation…primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200m…a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips” (PIER, undated).
Likely to decrease the probability of soil erosion.
L
ML
8. Reduce biomass?Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation…primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200m…a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips” (PIER, undated).
Biomass may increase.
L
ML
9. Change fire regime?Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation…primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200m…a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips” (PIER, undated).
May cause a moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
ML
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
Potential distribution of Buddleja asiatica excludes Victoria. No impact on EVCs in Victoria.
L
H
(b) medium value EVCPotential distribution of Buddleja asiatica excludes Victoria. No impact on EVCs in Victoria.
L
H
(c) low value EVCPotential distribution of Buddleja asiatica excludes Victoria. No impact on EVCs in Victoria.
L
H
11. Impact on structure?“Is a fairly widespread weed in moist lowland areas” (Starr et al. 2003). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Alt[itudes] 200-2000m. Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation…primarily disturbed areas, on lava and cinder, and in wet forest, 100-1,200m…a pioneer species mostly associated with disturbed areas, such as disused food gardens, roadsides and old gold mining sites…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers, lava streams, and landslips. It has a wide altitudinal tolerance, occurring from 80 to 2900m altitude” (PIER, undated).
May cause a minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
ML
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
M
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?“The beautiful butterflies who feed on its nectar, are a joy to watch” (Flowers of India, undated). Buddlejas “were popular plants in older gardens, as they have strongly-scented, colourful flowers that attract butterflies” (Hussey 1997). “Is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds…My husband has seen hummingbirds at it also” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). “Shrub, undershrub or sometimes small tree, 0.80-7m. high” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
May provide some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?B. asiatica Lour. Has been used as a fish poison (Spencer 2002).
Unclear if this is in its natural state or utilised by humans. More information needed.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988). “The beautiful butterflies who feed on its nectar, are a joy to watch” (Flowers of India, undated).
May provide food for pests, but to what degree is unclear. More information needed.
M
L
18. Provides harbour?“Shrub, undershrub or sometimes small tree, 0.80-7m. high” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Buddleja asiatica (family Loganiaceae) is a large, densely branched evergreen shrub” (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
May have a capacity to provide harbour and permanent warrens for foxes and rabbits throughout the year.
H
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“Widespread in cultivation as a weed…Very common in mesic to wet pastures” (PIER, undated). “Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988).
Not enough information.
M
L
20. Impact quality?“Widespread in cultivation as a weed…Very common in mesic to wet pastures” (PIER, undated). “Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988).
Not enough information.
M
L
21. Affect land value?“Widespread in cultivation as a weed…Very common in mesic to wet pastures” (PIER, undated). “Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988).
Not enough information.
M
L
22. Change land use?“Widespread in cultivation as a weed…Very common in mesic to wet pastures” (PIER, undated). “Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988).
Not enough information.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?“Widespread in cultivation as a weed…Very common in mesic to wet pastures” (PIER, undated). “Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988).
Not enough information.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?No information found.
M
L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Results from table 1 show that Buddleja asiatica seeds are non-dormant. The commencement of germination and percentage germination is more or less similar for first four months (July-Oct.) but gradually decreases in the subsequent four months. This may be attributed to low atmospheric temperature of the later months. On the other hand seeds germinated in October in the polybags showed considerable growth from the month December to February. i.e. height increased from 4.8cm to 27cm and diameter also became almost double from 0.22cm in December to 0.43 in the month of February. These observations showed that once the seed has germinated, low atmosphere temperature and comparatively smaller photoperiods (during winter months) are not a constraint for the fast growth of this species both in form of height and diameter” (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
May be an opportunistic germinator, can germinate or strike/ set root at any time whenever water is available.
H
ML
2. Establishment requirements?Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983).
May indicate that this plant requires more specific requirements to establish (eg. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
ML
3. How much disturbance is required?“Is a fairly widespread weed in moist lowland areas” (Starr et al. 2003). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Habitat: In open places or light forests” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests [and] in wet forest…In general, it occupies open situations such as grasslands, gravel-beds of rivers” (PIER, undated).
May be able to establish in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (eg. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops or in well-established pastures.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“Shrub, undershrub or sometimes small tree, 0.80-7m. high” (Leeuwenberg).
Other.
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?No information found.
M
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“Leaves are used as fodder” (Shrestha 1988). Buddlejas “were popular plants in older gardens, as they have strongly-scented, colourful flowers that attract butterflies” (Hussey 1997). “Is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). “Several tall species of [Buddleia] sic, are widely cultivated, sucker readily and tend to persist about old gardens” (Willis 1972).
May be consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering/seed production under moderate herbivory pressure _where moderate= normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
MH
ML
7. Normal growth rate?“These observations showed that once the seed has germinated, low atmosphere temperature and comparatively smaller photoperiods (during winter months) are not a constraint for the fast growth of this species both in form of height and diameter” (Grown in laboratory conditions) (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
ML
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“Very tender: it will not survive winters at Ottawa, Canada…nor even in northern Virginia…Plants of both parents and of the hybrid which were growing outdoors were subjected to a temperature of 42F during a night in September, 1949. Neither parent showed any injury” (Grown in laboratory conditions) (Moore 1952).
“Is a fairly widespread weed in moist lowland areas” (Starr et al. 2003). Recorded as a species invading openings in the ‘h a-tree fern montane rain-forest (Burton, undated). “Alt[itudes] 200-2000m.” (Leeuwenberg 1983). “Very common in mesic to wet pastures, forests, roadsides and waste areas of Hawai’i up to 4000ft. elevation… and in wet forest, 100-1,200m… It has a wide altitudinal tolerance, occurring from 80 to 2900m altitude” (PIER, undated). “Several tall species of [Buddleia] sic, are widely cultivated, sucker readily and tend to persist about old gardens” (Willis 1972). “Most hardy ones are capable of surviving great fluctuations of temperatures and weather conditions, including drought” (Stuart 2006).
May be tolerant to waterlogging and have some tolerance to frost and drought. Suckering may indicate some tolerance to fire. Unlikely to be tolerant to salinity.
May be tolerant to at least two and susceptible to at least one.
ML
ML
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“The fruit is a capsule, 0.5-0.7-cm long and containing on average 202 seeds; the seeds are light in weight” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). “Several tall species of [Buddleia] sic, are widely cultivated, sucker readily and tend to persist about old gardens” (Willis 1972). “An additional hybrid, Buddleja asiatica Lour. X B. japonica Hemsley, has now been produced…Fifteen flowers of an unusually late flowering spike of B. asiatica were pollinated on July 7, 1948, with pollen of B. japonica…The plant used as female parent is always self-sterile, as are all others of the species which the author has seen” (Moore 1952).
No mention of vegetative reproduction, only suckering. Possibly only cross-pollination.
L
ML
10. Number of propagules produced?“The flowers are borne in three-five flowered cymes… Is a woody shrub up to 15 feet in height” (Moore 1952). “The fruit is a capsule, 0.5-0.7-cm long and containing on average 202 seeds; the seeds are light in weight” (Vasistha and Soni 1989). “When it blooms, it often looks like it is all flowers and no leaves at all. When the flowers are finished the shrub tends to look dead” (Flowers of India, Undated).
For a shrub of this size to be covered in flowers, each containing 202 seeds on average, then it is likely that there will be above 2000 seeds per flowering event.
H
M
11. Propagule longevity?“Results from table 1 show that Buddleja asiatica seeds are non-dormant. The commencement of germination and percentage germination is more or less similar for first four months (July-Oct.) but gradually decreases in the subsequent four months. This may be attributed to low atmospheric temperature of the later months” (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
Likely that less than 25% of seeds survive 5 years.
L
ML
12. Reproductive period?“Blooms on year old wood” (Dave’s Garden, undated). “These observations showed that once the seed has germinated, low atmosphere temperature and comparatively smaller photoperiods (during winter months) are not a constraint for the fast growth of this species both in form of height and diameter” (Grown in laboratory conditions) (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
Not enough information found.
M
L
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“Blooms on year old wood” (Dave’s Garden, undated). “These observations showed that once the seed has germinated, low atmosphere temperature and comparatively smaller photoperiods (during winter months) are not a constraint for the fast growth of this species both in form of height and diameter” (Grown in laboratory conditions) (Vasistha and Soni 1989).
May indicate that this species may produce propagules between 1-2 years after germination.
MH
ML
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“Propagation: Wind-borne seeds” (PIER undated). “Seeds pale brown, reticulate, winged at both ends, 0.8-1x0.3-0.4x0.2mm” (Leeuwenberg 1983). A related species, “Buddleja davidii, whose seeds are tiny, almost the size of ground black pepper, and easily carried in the wind. Once airborne the seeds can be carried great distances in the thermals, often being deposited in the most unusual places” (Stuart 2006).
Very light, wind dispersed seeds.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?“Propagation: Wind-borne seeds” (PIER undated). “Seeds pale brown, reticulate, winged at both ends, 0.8-1x0.3-0.4x0.2mm” (Leeuwenberg 1983). A related species, “Buddleja davidii, whose seeds are tiny, almost the size of ground black pepper, and easily carried in the wind. Once airborne the seeds can be carried great distances in the thermals, often being deposited in the most unusual places” (Stuart 2006).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
MH


References
Burton P.J. (undated) Plant invasion into an ’Ōhi’ a- tree fern rain forest following experimental canopy opening. Available at: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/speci/3rd/11.pdf (verified 12/02/2010).

Dave’s Garden (2000-2010). PlantFiles: Asian Butterfly Bush, White Butterfly Bush, Winter Lilac, Buddleja asiatica. Available at: http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/2332/ (12/02/2010).

Flowers of India (Undated). White Butterfly Bush. Available at: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/White%20Butterfly%20Bush.html (verified 12/02/2010).

Leeuwenberg A.J. (1983) Entry for Buddleja asiatica Lour. [Family Loganiaceae] Available at: http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.FLORA.FZ5535&pgs (verified 12/02/2010).

Moore R.J. (1952) An Interspecific Hybrid in Buddleja. Journal of Heredity; pg 41-44.

PIER (Undated) Buddleja asiatica. Available at: http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/buddleja_asiatica.htm (verified 12/02/2010).

PIER (Undated) Buddleja asiatica risk assessment. Available at: http://www.hear.org/Pier/wra/pacific/buddleja_asiatica_htmlwra.htm (verified 12/02/2010).

Shrestha P. (1988) Contribution to the Ethnototany of the Tamangs of Kathmandu Valley. CNAS Journal. Vol.15, No. 2. Also available at:
http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/contributions/pdf/CNAS_15_02_06.pdf (verified 12/02/2010).

Stuart D. (2006) Buddlejas. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.

Spencer R. (Ed.) (2002) Horticultural Flora of South-Eastern Australia Volume 4. Flowering Plants Dicotyledons Part 3. UNSW Press.

Starr F, Starr K. and Loope L. (2003) Buddleia davidii Butterfly bush, Buddlieaceae. Available at: http://www.hear.org/Pier/pdf/pohreports/buddleia_davidii.pdf (verified
12/02/2010).

Vasistha H.B. and Soni P. (1989) Germination behaviour of Buddleja asiatica Lour- a promising shrub for regreening of degraded habitats. Indian Forester. Vol. 115, 120-121.

Willis J.H. (1972) A Handbook to Plants in Victoria, Volume 2 Dicotyledons. Melbourne University Press, Carlton.


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 08/02/2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 20/08/2009).


Feedback

Do you have additional information about this plant that will improve the quality of the assessment?
If so, we would value your contribution. Click on the link to go to the feedback form.
Page top