Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

Tree lupin (Lupinus arboreus)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Lupinus arboreus Sims
Common name(s):

tree lupin
map showing the present distribution of lupinus arboreus
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

“Germination may be improved by salt spray” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Seedling germination begins with the winter rains… and ceases with the end of the rainy season” (Maron and Simms 1997). “Rarely is it found on any soil textures other than sand and loamy sand…The climate is cool and wet in winter, cool and dry (but foggy) in summer… Lupine populations [are found] within a grassland matrix” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “L. arboreus contrasts unambiguously with the low grass-forb prairie and sand of the study areas where no trees grow” (Strong et al 1995). “Sand
dunes, riverbeds, roadsides” (Auckland Regional Council). “Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland” and elevation to 100 m. (Jepson flora project.) “Invaded habitats [include] coastal grass and heathland, coastal scrub and dunes” (Weber 2003). “In New Zealand, decline of this shrub has occurred in pine plantations as a result of infection by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides” (Weber 2003).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation.

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; foothills forest; forby forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; saline wetland

Colours indicate possibility of Lupinus arboreus infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of lupinus arboreus
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“Forms dense thickets” (Weber 2003). “The largest bush lupines attain 1.5 m in height and canopy areas of 6 m… Plants older than 1 year have canopy diameters between 1 and 3 m… Cover repeatedly increased from close to zero to as high as 60%, then plunged back to zero, within 3-5 years” (Strong et al 1995).Due to the size and ability to form thickets, this plant cause impediment to access waterways or machinery.
- Major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
H
2. Reduce tourism?“Forms dense thickets” (Weber 2003). “The largest bush lupines attain 1.5 m in height and canopy areas of 6 m… Plants older than 1 year have canopy diameters between 1 and 3 m… Cover repeatedly increased from close to zero to as high as 60%, then plunged back to zero, within 3-5 years” (Strong et al 1995). “Produces relatively large (14-18 mm) bright-yellow flowers in whorls on racemes” (Stout 2001).
Due to the size, flowers and ability to form thickets, this plant may be a major impact on recreation.
- Weeds obvious to most visitors, with visitor response complaints and a major reduction in visitors.
H
H
3. Injurious to people?“The only likely cause of lupin poisoning in human beings is the consumption of green, unripe seeds or pods of garden lupins, mistaken for peas or beans, or of rip seeds, the pods of which are attractive to children because of their covering of silky hairs. The effects… include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache and abdominal pain. There may be respiratory depression and slowing of the heart. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive, although this is rarely required” (Cooper and Johnson 1984). These symptoms caused are considered to be extremely toxic. - Extremely toxic, and/or cause serious allergies to humans throughout year.
H
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?“Excavating the deep and extensive tap root system of the older plants was impractical” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “The largest bush lupines attain 1.5 m in height and canopy areas of 6 m… The tap root, of which an L. arboreus plant has only one. Lateral roots are much smaller… Plants older than 1 year have canopy diameters between 1 and 3 m” (Strong et al 1995). “Produces relatively large (14-18 mm) bright-yellow flowers in whorls on racemes” (Stout 2001).
- Moderate visual effect.
ML
MH
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?“Lupine populations [are found] within a grassland matrix” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “L. arboreus contrasts unambiguously with the low grass-forb prairie and sand of the study areas” (Strong et al 1995). “Sand dunes, riverbeds, roadsides” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland” and elevation to 100 m. (Hickman 2003). “Invaded habitats [include] coastal grass and heathland, coastal scrub and dunes” (Weber 2003). The term riverbed is assumed to be a dried riverbed and therefore this is not an aquatic plant.
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
MH
6. Impact water quality?“Lupine populations [are found] within a grassland matrix” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “L. arboreus contrasts unambiguously with the low grass-forb prairie and sand of the study areas” (Strong et al 1995). “Sand dunes, riverbeds, roadsides” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland” and elevation to 100 m. (Hickman 2003). “Invaded habitats [include] coastal grass and heathland, coastal scrub and dunes” (Weber 2003). The term riverbed is assumed to be a dried riverbed and therefore this is not an aquatic plant.
- No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
MH
7. Increase soil erosion?“Has been planted for dune stabilisation purposes in northern California, Oregon, and New Zealand” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Roots of dead L. arboreus remained intact in the soil for at least 2 years” (Strong et al 1995). Decreases the probability of soil erosion.
- Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
H
8. Reduce biomass?“Forms dense thickets” (Weber 2003). “The largest bush lupines attain 1.5 m in height and canopy areas of 6 m… Plants older than 1 year have canopy diameters between 1 and 3 m… Cover repeatedly increased from close to zero to as high as 60%, then plunged back to zero, within 3-5 years” (Strong et al 1995). “Out competes [New Zealand’s] native species” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “Invaded habitats [include] coastal grass and heathland, coastal scrub and dunes” (Weber 2003).
- Biomass may increase slightly as this shrub is likely to be larger than the grasses of the habitat it grows in.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?“The largest bush lupines attain 1.5 m in height and canopy areas of 6 m… Plants older than 1 year have canopy diameters between 1 and 3 m… Cover repeatedly increased from close to zero to as high as 60%, then plunged back to zero, within 3-5 years… Bush lupine wood is hard, and under the conditions at our study sites, dead shoots not trampled or broken by animals remained standing for 2 years” (Strong et al 1995). “Forms dense thickets” (Weber 2003). The build up of this dead wood in such a volume may moderately change the intensity of fire risk.
- Moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Plains grassland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Victorian Volcanic Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
- Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or dominant spp within different layers).
MH
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Wet Heathland (D); CMA =West Gippsland; Bioregion =Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
- Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or dominant spp within different layers).
MH
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Herb-rich Foothill Forest (LC); CMA =Port Phillip and Wes; Bioregion =Highlands- Southern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
- Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or dominant spp within different layers).
MH
H
11. Impact on structure?“The ground beneath these canopies is thick with litter, but exhibits virtually no living vegetation” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Forms dense thickets that alter the community structure and fauna richness, and reduces plant species richness… The enriched soil promotes invasion by exotic weeds under dead bushes of this plant” (Weber 2003). “Few stands are as small as twenty plants (0.01 ha), many contain hundreds of plants and occupy ca. 0.25 ha; the largest are several hectares and consist of many thousands of plants” (Strong et al 1995).
- Major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?“Out competes [New Zealand’s] native species” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “The ground beneath these canopies is thick with litter, but exhibits virtually no living vegetation” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Forms dense thickets that alter the community structure and fauna richness, and reduces plant species richness… The enriched soil promotes invasion by exotic weeds under dead bushes of this plant” (Weber 2003).
- No information mentions a VROT species.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?“Forms dense thickets that alter the community structure and fauna richness” (Weber 2003).
- No information mentions any threatened fauna species.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?“Forms dense thickets that alter the community structure and fauna richness, and reduces plant species richness” (Weber 2003).
- May lead to reduction in habitat for fauna species, leading to reduction in numbers of individuals, but not to local extinction.
MH
M
15. Benefits fauna?“Harbours animal pests” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “Surveys showed that the seed-eating deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and the California vole (Microtus californicus) inhabit the area beneath the canopies” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). Mammalian herbivores include pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae); deer (Odocoileus hemionus), hare (Lepus californicus), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani). “Bush lupine has thrived under extraordinary herbivore intensities and chronic high damage at our study sites” (Strong et al 1995).
- May provide some assistance in both food and shelter to desirable species.
MH
M
16. Injurious to fauna?“(+) –Lupanine and () –sparteine occur in this species, the latter in greater quantity. There is no evidence that the very widespread L. arboreus has poisoned livestock either in New Zealand, or in its place of origin, California. Sparteine, only slightly less toxic than lupanine, causes tonic convulsions with decreased respiration and depression of all motor functions. It exerts, too a peripheral inhibiting action on motor nerve endings and on the ganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system” (Connor 1977). “L. arboreus… have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) toxic to livestock (especially sheep)” (Hickman 2003). L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… The plant spread to areas recently removed from grazing and agriculture”. Mammalian herbivores include pocket gophers, Thomomys bottae, deer (Odocoileus hemionus), hare (Lepus californicus), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani) (Strong et al 1995).
Although there are three toxins found in Lupinus arboreus, there are still reports of it being found in grazing country yet no reports of poisonings. As this information is conflicting, only a default score can be given.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“Protected from grazing by domestic animals, but it continues to be grazed by black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus)” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). Mammalian herbivores include pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae); deer (Odocoileus hemionus), hare (Lepus californicus), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani). “Bush lupine has thrived under extraordinary herbivore intensities and chronic high damage at our study sites” (Strong et al 1995).
Supplies food for hares and rabbits and may also provide a food source for goats.
-Supplies food for >1 major pest spp throughout the year.
H
H
18. Provides harbor?“Harbours animal pests” (Auckland Regional Council 2007). “Surveys showed that the seed-eating deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and the California vole (Microtus californicus) inhabit the area beneath the canopies” (Davidson and Barbour 1977).
- Unsure if it provides for serious pest species but may provide for minor pest spp.
ML
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“(+) –Lupanine and () –sparteine occur in this species, the latter in greater quantity. There is no evidence that the very widespread L. arboreus has poisoned livestock either in New Zealand, or in its place of origin, California. Sparteine, only slightly less toxic than lupanine, causes tonic convulsions with decreased respiration and depression of all motor functions. It exerts, too a peripheral inhibiting action on motor nerve endings and on the ganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system” (Connor 1977). “L. arboreus… have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) toxic to livestock (especially sheep)” (Hickman 2003). L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… The plant spread to areas recently removed from grazing and agriculture”. (Strong et al 1995).
- It is unknown if the toxins in this species will impact upon the yield via death or weight loss of the animal.
M
L
20. Impact quality?Tree lupine (Lupinus arboreus)… showed levels of necrosis similar to the target weeds in response to infection by F. tumidum The fungus generally had less effect on more distantly related legumes that are native in New Zealand, or are used there as economic crops or as cover crops in plantation forest” (Barton et al 2003).
“(+) –Lupanine and () –sparteine occur in this species, the later in greater quantity. There is no evidence that the very widespread L. arboreus has poisoned livestock either in New Zealand, or in its place of origin, California. Sparteine, only slightly less toxic than lupanine, causes tonic convulsions with decreased respiration and depression of all motor functions. It exerts, too a peripheral inhibiting action on motor nerve endings and on the ganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system” (Connor 1977). “L. arboreus… have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) toxic to livestock (especially sheep)” (Hickman 2003). L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… The plant spread to areas recently removed from grazing and agriculture”. (Strong et al 1995).
- It is unknown if the quality of produce will be affected.
M
L
21. Affect land value?“(+) –Lupanine and () –sparteine occur in this species, the later in greater quantity. There is no evidence that the very widespread L. arboreus has poisoned livestock either in New Zealand, or in its place of origin, California. Sparteine, only slightly less toxic than lupanine, causes tonic convulsions with decreased respiration and depression of all motor functions. It exerts, too a peripheral inhibiting action on motor nerve endings and on the ganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system” (Connor 1977). “L. arboreus… have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) toxic to livestock (especially sheep)” (Hickman 2003). L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… The plant spread to areas recently removed from grazing and agriculture”. (Strong et al 1995).
It is unknown if land values will be affected by the occurrence of this species on the land.
M
L
22. Change land use? “(+) –Lupanine and () –sparteine occur in this species, the later in greater quantity. There is no evidence that the very widespread L. arboreus has poisoned livestock either in New Zealand, or in its place of origin, California. Sparteine, only slightly less toxic than lupanine, causes tonic convulsions with decreased respiration and depression of all motor functions. It exerts, too a peripheral inhibiting action on motor nerve endings and on the ganglionic cells of the sympathetic nervous system” (Connor 1977). “L. arboreus… have alkaloids (especially in seeds, fruits, young herbage) toxic to livestock (especially sheep)” (Hickman 2003). L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… The plant spread to areas recently removed from grazing and agriculture”. (Strong et al 1995).
This information is too conflicting to determine whether a change in land use would be necessary.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?No information was found to indicate that harvest costs could be affected.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?“Tree lupine (Lupinus arboreus)… showed levels of necrosis similar to the target weeds in response to infection by F. tumidum The fungus generally had less effect on more distantly related legumes that are native in New Zealand, or are used there as economic crops or as cover crops in plantation forest” Tree lupin is listed as a “plant with potential to be used as [one of the] cover crops in forestry plantations in New Zealand” (Barton et al 2003). “In New Zealand, decline of this shrub has occurred in pine plantations as a result of infection by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides” (Weber 2003).
Information suggests that these fungal diseases are generally not of great concern and are a minor disease.
M
ML


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Germination may be improved by salt spray” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Bush lupine germinated during winter rains from November to April” (Central California coast; Strong et al 1995). “Lupine seedling germination begins with the winter rains… and ceases with the end of the rainy season” (Maron and Simms 1997).
- Requires natural seasonal rainfall for germination.
MH
H
2. Establishment requirements?“Lupine populations [are found] within a grassland matrix… The ground beneath these canopies is thick with litter, but exhibits virtually no living vegetation… It should be noted that sufficient light to support seedling growth probably exists under many parent lupines” (Davidson and Barbour 1977).
- Could establish under moderate litter cover.
MH
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?“Invaded habitats [include] coastal grass and heathland, coastal scrub and dunes” (Weber 2003).
- May establish in healthy and undisturbed natural ecosystem of heathland.
H
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“Shrub” (Davidson and Barbour 1977).
- Other
L
H
5. Allelopathic properties?“Survival (at least through April) may be greater due to the relative lack of competition from grasses… Lupine populations [are found] within a grassland matrix” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Spaces between lupine patches are occupied by a matrix of native and introduced grasses and forbs” (Maron and Simms 1997).
This suggests that this species grow within a close proximity to other plants with no mention of allelopathic properties.
- None.
L
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Caterpillars cause root damage. “Older, larger bush lupines better withstood root damage…The lowest lupine mortality rates in our study occurred where tussock caterpillar intensities were high and where plants were repeatedly defoliated by this insect… Damaged frequently by several insect species that feed on leaves, stems, and roots… L. arboreus has generally proliferated since grazing and farming were eliminated in 1983… Bush lupine has thrived under extraordinary herbivore intensities and chronic high damage at our study sites… We speculate that bush lupine populations persist in the face of virtually ubiquitous attack by ghost moth caterpillars because seedlings usually escape this herbivore, and young mature plants set seed before being killed”. Mammalian herbivores include pocket gophers, Thomomys bottae, deer (Odocoileus hemionus), hare (Lepus californicus), and rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani) (Strong et al 1995).
- Consumed but recovers quickly and capable of flowering/ seed production under moderate herbivory pressure.
MH
M
7. Normal growth rate?“Large, fast-growing, short-lived shrub” (Davidson and Barbour 1977) (Weber 2003). “L. arboreus grows rapidly” (Strong et al 1995).
- Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
H
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“Is exposed to salt spray” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Only rarely is it found on any soil textures other than sand and loamy sand… The climate is cool and wet in winter, cool and dry (but foggy) in summer. During the winter, temperatures usually do not exceed 17C nor fall more than a few degrees below freezing. Sunny summer days rarely exceed 27C or fall below 7C on clear nights During the years 1968-1973, annual precipitation averaged 590mm” (Davidson and Barbour 1977). “Coastal bluffs, dunes, or more inland” and elevation to 100 m. (Hickman 2003). Growing in a coastal and dune environment indicates that this species might not tolerate water logging but could tolerant salinity. As this inhabits an area where winter temperature can fall a few degrees below freezing, this could indicate a tolerance to frost.
- Tolerant to two and susceptible to one.
ML
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“Insect visits are usually necessary to fertilise flowers, which are generally not capable of automatic self-pollination or apomictic seed production” (Stout et al 2001).
- Sexual reproduction is normally by cross-pollination.
L
H
10. Number of propagules produced?“Fruits…each containing 8-12 seeds” (Weber 2003). Photos found of Lupinus arboreus indicate that there are 75 individual flowers per inflorescence and there are at least 37 inflorescences per bush.
Therefore maximum of 12 seeds per flower multiplied by 75 flowers per inflorescence: 12 x 75= 900.
900 seeds per inflorescence multiplied by a minimum of 37 inflorescences per bush: 900 x 37= 33,300.
- More than 2000 seeds could be produced per flowering event.
H
M
11. Propagule longevity?“Treatment must be repeated for at least 3 years in order to deplete the seed bank” (Weber 2003). “Among seeds sampled from the natural seed bank that were a minimum of 46 months old, 59% were viable” (Maron and Simms 1997).
- If the seed bank needs to be treated for at least three years, it is assumed that the seeds are viable in the soil for at least this amount of time too but it is unknown whether 25% of seeds will survive 5 years.
L
M
12. Reproductive period?“The first flowering and seed set are usually in the second summer, ca. 18 months after germination… The largest number of growth rings that we counted in any L. arboreus was ten” (Strong et al 1995).
10-1.5=8.5 (8 and a half years) reproductive period.
- Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
MH
H
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“The first flowering and seed set are usually in the second summer, ca. 18 months after germination” (Strong et al 1995).
- Produces propagules between 1-2 years after germination.
MH
H
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“Although deer mice lack cheek pouches, they do cache seeds” (Maron and Simms 1997). “Home range of deer mice can vary from about 0.5 to 3 acres (0.2 to 1.2 hectares)” (Freedman nd.).
- Seeds eaten but moved and cached by deer mice.
H
M
15. How far do they disperse?“Although deer mice lack cheek pouches, they do cache seeds” (Maron and Simms 1997). “Home range of deer mice can vary from about 0.5 to 3 acres (0.2 to 1.2 hectares)” (Freedman nd.).
The home range of the deer mouse is about 100 m.
- Most seeds could spread 20-200 metres.
ML
M


References

Auckland Regional Council (2007) Non-native plant: Lupinus arboreus Available at: http://www.arc.govt.nz/plants/plantdetails.cfm?plantcode=Luparb (verified 17 December 2008).

Barton J (ne Frhlich), Gianotti AF, Morin L and Webster RA (2003) Exploring the host range of Fusarium tumidum, a candidate bio-herbicide for gorse and broom. Australian
Plant Pathology 32, 203-211.

Biochange (2008) Lupinus arboreus. Available at: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_species.php?species=471&volg=i&lang=latin&p=i (verified 17 December 2008).

Calflora (2008) Lupinus arboreus Sims Available at: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4036 (verified 16 December 2008).

Connor HE. (1977) The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. E.C. Keating, Government Printer. Wellington.

Cooper MR and Johnson AW. (1984) Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office. London.

Davidson ED, Barbour MG (1977) Germination, establishment, and demography of coastal bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) at Bodega head, California. Ecology 58, 592-600

Freedman (nd.) Deer Mouse Available at: http://science.jrank.org/pages/1970/Deer-Mouse.html (verified 22 January 2009).

Hickman JC (2003) The Jepson Manual: Higher plants of California. 2nd Edn. University of California Press. California. Also available at: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgibin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3691,4023,4036 (verified 17 December 2008).

Kozak C (1999) Lupinus arboreus: Yellow bush lupine. Available at: http://plants.montara.com/ListPages/FamPages/Faba3.html (verified 17 December 2008).

Maron JL (1997) Interspecific competition and insect herbivory reduce bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus) seedling survival. Oecologia 110, 284-290. Also available at:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/3fm8ar5vbq9rc15d/ (verified 17 December 2008).

Maron JL and Simms EL (1997) Effect of seed predation on seed bank size and seedling recruitment of bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Oecologia 111, 76-83

Parham BEV and Healy AJ (1985) Common weeds in New Zealand. P.D. Hasselberg, Government printer. Wellington, New Zealand.

Richardson FJ, Richardson RG and Shepherd RCH. (2006) Weeds of the South-east. An Identification Guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson. Meredith.

Stout JC, Kells AR, Goulson D (2001) Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania. Biological conservation 106, 425-434

Strong DR, Maron JL, Connors PG, Whipple A, Harrison S, Jefferies RL (1995) High mortality, fluctuation in numbers, and heavy subterranean insect herbivory in bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Oecologica 104, 85-92

Webb CJ, Sykes WR and Garnock-Jones PJ. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4. Botany Division, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand.

Weber E (2003) Invasive plant species of the world- A reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI publishing, Switzerland.


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2008) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 19 January 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 20 January 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 17 December 2008).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online
Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2008) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 17 December 2008).


Feedback

Do you have additional information about this plant that will improve the quality of the assessment?
If so, we would value your contribution. Click on the link to go to the feedback form.
Page top