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Sisyrinchium spp.

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Sisyrinchium spp. L.
Common name(s):

map showing the present distribution of sisyrium spp
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores [S.angustifolium] (CW 2005). Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated).
Frost tolerant (Cradoc undated). Elevations of up to 3000ft. (Calflora 2008). Most species prefer moist to wet soils (Woodland Plants; PFAF undated). Tolerates winter temperatures down to about -40C (PFAF undated). Between 0-3000ft [Sisyrinchium bellum] (Calflora 2008). Xerophytic and helophytic (Gathe 2008)


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water.

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
swampy scrub; treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; high altitude wetland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; freshwater wetland (ephemeral); chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummockgrass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Sisyrinchium spp. infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of sisyrium spp
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
- Minimal impact.
L
M
2. Reduce tourism?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). ‘Most Sisyrinchium are considered laxative, and some like S. albidum are considered poisonous (Austin and Honeychurch 2004). Consumption of this plant may be toxic, but it would otherwise be inconspicuous to most people.
- Weeds not obvious to the average visitor.
L
MH
3. Injurious to people?‘Most Sisyrinchium are considered laxative, and some like S. albidum are considered poisonous (Austin and Honeychurch 2004).
- Toxic properties at most times of the year.
MH
MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002).
Not enough information.
M
L
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores. Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated). Rhizomatous (James and Brown undated; eFloras undated). Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated). Several species of this genus are found on riparian zones and along shores, although this species is not an aquatic, therefore minimal impact to water flow is expected.
- Little impact on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores. Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated). Rhizomatous (James and Brown undated; eFloras undated). Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Several species of this genus are found on riparian zones and along shores, although this species is not an aquatic, therefore causing minimal impact to water quality. Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated).
- No noticeable effect to dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
2005). Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Rhizomatous (Gathe 2008).
Rhizomes are likely to increase soil stability, but impacts on erosion are unknown.
M
L
8. Reduce biomass?Annual or perennial herbs. (Gathe 2008). Rhizomatous (James and Brown undated; eFloras undated). A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
- Biomass may increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?Not enough information.
M
L
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Plains Grassy Woodland (E); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Victorian Volcanic Plains;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002).
- Minor displacement of some of the dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer. (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs).
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Riverine Grassy Woodland (D); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002).
- Minor displacement of some of the dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer. (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs).
ML
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Wet Forest (LC); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion = East Gippsland Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002).
- Minor displacement of some of the dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer. (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs).
ML
H
11. Impact on structure?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
- Minor or negligible impact on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
L
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
Impacts on threatened flora are unknown.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?‘… and some like S. albidum are considered poisonous’ (Austin and Honeychurch 2004).
Impacts on threatened fauna are unknown.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?‘… and some [species] like S. albidum are considered poisonous’ (Austin and Honeychurch 2004).
- Minor effects on fauna species; minor hazard.
ML
MH
15. Benefits fauna?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). ‘… And some [species] like S. albidum are considered poisonous’ (Austin and Honeychurch 2004). The small size of this genus is unlikely to provide adequate shelter and toxicity of plant material is a major hazard.
- Provides very little support to desirable species.
H
M
16. Injurious to fauna?‘… and some like S. albidum are considered poisonous’ (Austin and Honeychurch 2004).
- Toxic, and may cause allergies.
H
MH
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?‘… and some [species] like S. albidum are considered poisonous’ (Austin and Honeychurch 2004).
- Provides minimal food for pest species.
L
MH
18. Provides harbour?Herbs to 20cm high (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). This small herb is unlikely to provide any significant shelter.
- Doesn’t provide harbour for major pest species, may provide harbour for minor pest species.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
There is no evidence to suggest that Sisyrinchium will have any impact on quality of agricultural produce.
- Negligible impact on quantity of yield.
L
M
20. Impact quality?Herbs to 20cm high. A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
There is no evidence to suggest that Sisyrinchium will have any impact on quality of agricultural produce.
- Negligible impact on the quality of yield.
L
M
21. Affect land value?A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
There is no evidence to suggest that Sisyrinchium will have any impact to change value of land.
- Little or none.
L
M
22. Change land use?A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
Not likely to illicit a change in the land use.
- Little or no change.
L
M
23. Increase harvest costs?A weed of grasslands and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
Unknown.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?Brunt et al. (1996 onwards) do not list Sisyrinchium as a host to viruses or disease.
- Little or no host.
L
MH


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Requires moist soils (PFAF undated). No specific germination requirements could be found.
M
L
2. Establishment requirements?A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores [S. angustifolium] (CW 2005). Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Most species tolerate some shade (Woodland Plants undated).
- Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space, access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?A weed of grassland and pastures (Botanic Gardens Trust undated). Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores [S. angustifolium] (CW 2005). Foothill woodland, wetland-riparian (CalFlora 2008). Sandy woods, in marshy meadows and on lake shores (PFAF undated).
- Establishes relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands and woodlands).
MH
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Cormous (Spooner 2002).
- Geophytes.
ML
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?No evidence of allellopathy in this genus (Rice 1984).
- None.
L
MH
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Unknown.
M
L
7. Normal growth rate?Sisyrinchium graminoides is listed as a moderate growth speed (Fine Gardening 2007).
Sisyrinchium bellum has a fast growth rate (Payne 2002-2008).
Widely conflicting evidence.
M
L
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Elevations of up to 3000ft. (Calflora 2008). Most species prefer moist to wet soils (Woodland Plants undated; PFAF undated). Tolerates winter temperatures down to about -40C (PFAF undated). Between 0-3000ft [Sisyrinchium bellum] (Calflora 2008). Xerophytic and helophytic (Gathe 2008)
- Tolerant to at least two, susceptible to at least one.
ML
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemReproduction via seed (Gathe 2008). No evidence of vegetative reproduction.
- Sexual.
L
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?Many seeds (eFloras undated; Harden 1993). ‘Fruit 3 celled, 20-100 seeded’ (Gathe 2008). Numerous seeds (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
- 1000-2000.
MH
MH
11. Propagule longevity?Unknown.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?Annual or perennial herbs. (Gathe 2008). Longevity less than one year (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
-Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
MH
MH
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Annual or perennial herbs. (Gathe 2008). Longevity less than one year (Botanic Gardens Trust undated).
- Produces propagules between 1-2 years after germination.
MH
MH
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores [S. angustifolium] (CW 2005).
Known habitats suggest that water could be a dispersal mechanism, though there is a lack of evidence.
- Propagules spread by water.
MH
M
15. How far do they disperse?Grows along creeks, in dams [S. iridifolium] (Spooner 2002). Meadows, shores [S. angustifolium] (CW 2005).
Propagules likely to be dispersed by water.
- Few propagules will disperse greater than on kilometre, many will reach 200-1000 metres.
MH
M


References

Austin DF and Honychurch N (2004) Florida ethnobotany. Published by CRC Press.

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L and Zurcher EJ (eds.) (1996 onwards) `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Available at http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ (verified 05 May 2009).

Calflora (2008) Taxon Report 7632 Sisyrinchium bellum S. Watson. Available at http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=7632 (verified 23 April 2009).

eFloras (undated) Flora of North America Sisyrinchium http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=130515 (verified 23 April 2009).

Fine Gardening (2007) Sisyrinchium graminoides (Blue-eyed grass). Available at http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/sisyrinchium-graminoides-blue-eyed-grass.aspx (verified 05 May 2009).

Gathe J, (2008) Sisyrinchium L. from Florabase The Western Australian Flora, available at http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/21257 (verified 23 April 2009).

James TA, Brown EA (undated) PlantNet Genus Sisyrinchium. Available at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=gn&name=Sisyrinchium (verified 23 April 2009).

Payne T (2002-2006). Sisyrinchium bellum. Available at http://www.theodorepayne.org/gallery/pages/S/sisyrinchium_bellum_RockyPoint.htm (verified 30 April 2009).

PFAF (undated) Plants for A Future Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Available at http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Sisyrinchium+angustifolium (verified 23 April 2009).

Rice EL (1984) Allellopathy. Published by Academic Press

Spooner A (2002) Sisyrinchium iridifolium in FloraBase The Flora of Western Australia. Available at http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8338 (verified 05 May 2009).

Sydney Botanic Gardens Trust Sisyrinchium sp. Available at
http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/science/current_research/Ecology_of_Cumberland_Plain_Woodland/woodland_plants/sisyrinchium_sp (verified 23 April 2009)

Woodland Plants (undated) Wallis Creek Water Garden online catalogue. Available at http://www.walliscreekwatergarden.com.au/catalog.php (verified 23 April 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research. (2008) Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 23 April 2009).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 23 April 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). (2008) Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 23 April 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 23 April 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG). w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database. (2007) Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 23 April 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 23 April 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 23 April 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.



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