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Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Pinus sylvestris L.
Common name(s):

Scotch pine

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

Intolerant of shade. Sea level to about 2440 m. Will tolerate dry soil and exposed sites. Survives in eastern Siberia where winter temperatures have been recorded as low as -64 C (-83 F) (FSFED 2009). Tree prefers light sandy soils, rocky outcrops, peat bogs or close to the forest limit (BIIN 2009). It does not like areas with high rainfall or sea winds (Arkive 2009). The plant will tolerate dry soil and exposed sites. Drought tolerance: high, Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerance: moderate. Soil tolerances: clay; loam; sand; slightly alkaline; acidic; well-drained (FSDA 2009). Requires well-drained soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure. (PFAF 2009).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; wet forest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; saline wetland; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee

Colours indicate possibility of Pinus sylvestris infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of pinus sylvestris
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?This tree can grow as high as 40 metres and often has a trunk that is extensively forked (Arkive 2009). 30 feet wide (FSDA 2009). The Scotch pine grows so much more aggressively during the first few years that its roots crowd out roots of the other species leaving only Scotch pine (FSFED 2009). High nuisance value. People and/or vehicles access with difficulty.
MH
M
2. Reduce tourism?This tree can grow as high as 40 metres and often has a trunk that is extensively forked (Arkive 2009). 30 feet wide (FSDA 2009). The Scotch pine grows so much more aggressively during the first few years that its roots crowd out roots of the other species leaving only Scotch pine (FSFED 2009). May impact on some recreational amenities. Minor effects to aesthetics and/or recreational uses (ie. aware but not bothered or activity inhibited).
ML
MH
3. Injurious to people?Susceptible to breakage either at the crotch due to poor collar formation, or the wood itself is weak and tends to break (FSDA 2009). Falling debris may cause injury. The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people (PFAF 2009). May cause injury from falling debris, also may be a major component in rashes.
MH
MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?Surface roots are usually not a problem (FSDA 2009). Unlikely to cause structural damage. Moderate visual effect.
ML
MH
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Fruit, twigs, or foliage cause significant litter (FSDA 2009). Branches: grow mostly upright and will not droop (FSDA 2009). Litter accumulation may slow water flow in smaller streams. Minor impact on surface or subsurface flow either by roots or free floating aquatics.
ML
M
6. Impact water quality?Crown density: open (FSDA 2009). Minor reduction in light levels.
ML
MH
7. Increase soil erosion?It has been planted as a windbreak in some regions, notably the East Anglian Breckland (Arkive 2009). Its principal value in the United States appears to be as a Christmas tree, as an ornamental, and for erosion control (FSFED 2009). Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
MH
8. Reduce biomass?This tree can grow as high as 40 metres and often has a trunk that is extensively forked (Arkive 2009). 30 feet wide (FSDA 2009). The Scotch pine grows so much more aggressively during the first few years that its roots crowd out roots of the other species leaving only Scotch pine (FSFED 2009). Biomass may increase.
L
MH
9. Change fire regime?Young stands have thin bark and are heavily damaged by fire. Older trees with thicker bark are moderately resistant (FSFED 2009). Plants are easily killed by fire and cannot regenerate from the roots (PFAF 2009). Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire risk.
ML
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Montane Riparian Woodland (V); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion =Monaro Tablelands; H CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator spp. within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
M
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Lowland Herb-rich forest (D); CMA =East Gippsland; Bioregion =East Gippsland Lowlands; H CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator spp. within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
M
(c) low value EVCEVC = Montane Dry Woodland (LC); CMA =North East; Bioregion = Highlands- Northern Fall; H CLIMATE potential. Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator spp. within any one strata/layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
M
11. Impact on structure?On fertile sites, Scots pine is outcompeted by other—usually spruce or broad-leaved—tree species (BIIN 2009). Scotch pine, like red pine, is intolerant of shade. Overtopped saplings eventually are lost to suppression. Where Scotch pine has been intermixed with red or white pine at planting, the Scotch pine grows so much more aggressively during the first few years that its roots crowd out roots of the other species leaving only Scotch pine (FSFED 2009). Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator spp. within any one strata/layer (eg. ground cover, forbs, shrubs & trees).
ML
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?On fertile sites, Scots pine is outcompeted by other—usually spruce or broad-leaved—tree species (BIIN 2009). Scotch pine, like red pine, is intolerant of shade. Overtopped saplings eventually are lost to suppression (FSFED 2009). No information specifically on threatened flora.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna? Not enough information, unlikely.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Not enough information, unlikely.
ML
L
15. Benefits fauna?Fruit characteristics: does not attract wildlife; fruit, twigs, or foliage cause significant litter (FSDA 2009). Wildlife and insects are damaging (FSFED 2009). Measures such as fencing or reduction of game populations have been used to safeguard Scots pine populations (BIIN 2009). Conflicting evidence but could benefit some fauna as a food source.
MH
M
16. Injurious to fauna?No spines, burrs, thorns or toxins (FSFED 2009). Seedlings are grazed (BIIN 2009). No effect.
L
M
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Wildlife and insects are damaging (FSFED 2009). Measures such as fencing or reduction of game populations have been used to safeguard Scots pine populations (BIIN 2009). Insect pests (FSDA 2009). Supplies food for one or more minor pest spp. (e.g. blackbirds or environmental insect pests).
ML
MH
18. Provides harbour?It is not described as harbouring major pests, may provide harbour for minor pests. Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest species but may provide for minor pest spp.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Does not attract wildlife (FSDA 2009). No information on effect on agriculture.
M
L
20. Impact quality?Regenerates after major natural or human disturbances, if weed competition and grazing pressure are low (BIIN 2009). Does not tolerate herbivory therefore it becoming a pasture weed and reducing food supply may be relatively unlikely. Not enough information. Minor impact on quality of produce (e.g. < 5% reduction).
ML
L
21. Affect land value?Measures such as fencing or reduction of game populations have been used to safeguard Scots pine populations (BIIN 2009). It appears it is grazed by wildlife and stock therefore it is unlikely that it would become such a problem as to cause a reduction in land value. Little or none.
L
M
22. Change land use?No information.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?If control is required it would increase production costs, not enough information, especially in regards to its affect on agricultural land.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?In recent years the tree has been bothered with fatal attacks of Pine wilt nematode, Sawflies can cause rapid defoliation of branches if left unchecked; Pine shoot beetle; Canker diseases; Needle cast (FSDA 2009). Provides host to minor (or common) pests, or diseases.
M
MH


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Readily regenerates after major natural or human disturbances, if weed competition and grazing pressure are low (Arkive 2009). Seed germinate readily (FSDA 2009). Intolerant of shade. Seedlings germinating under a dense forest canopy do not survive for long (FSFED 2009). Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?Native to the UK (Arkive 2009). The tree prefers light sandy soils and lower altitudes (Arkive 2009) The species grows predominantly on poorer, sandy soils, rocky outcrops, peat bogs or close to the forest limit (BIIN 2009). Soil tolerances: clay; loam; sand; slightly alkaline; acidic; well-drained (FSDA 2009). Sea level to about 2440 m (FSFED 2009). Seedling establishment is best when adequate moisture is available and some shade is present (FSFED 2009). Seedlings germinating under a dense forest canopy do not survive for long (FSFED 2009). Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?Seedlings germinating under a dense forest canopy do not survive for long (FSFED 2009). Establishes in relatively intact OR only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands)
MH
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Tree. Other.
L
H
5. Allelopathic properties?The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat (PFAF 2009).
M
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Scottish foresters have had serious difficulties establishing Scotch pine regeneration under mature pine stands. This difficulty appears to be partly due to grazing by deer and domestic animals (FSFED 2009). Consumed and recovers slowly. Reproduction strongly inhibited by herbivory.
ML
M
7. Normal growth rate?Growth rate: medium (FSDA 2009). Growth rate equal to the same life form.
M
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?It does not like areas with high rainfall or sea winds (Arkive 2009). The plant will tolerate dry soil and exposed sites…Drought tolerance: high, Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate…Soil salt tolerance: moderate (FSDA 2009). Scotch pine survives in the Verkhoyansk Mountains of eastern Siberia where winter temperatures have been recorded as low as -64 C (-83 F) (FSFED 2009). Requires well-drained soil, The plant can tolerate maritime exposure. (PFAF 2009). Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, water-logging, and salinity, and may be tolerant of another.
MH
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemThe species is wind-pollinated and has both male and female flowers on the same tree (BIIN 2009). In nature, Scotch pine does not reproduce vegetatively (FSFED 2009). The plant not is self-fertile (PFAF 2009). Susceptible to at least one. Sexual (either cross or self-pollination).
L
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?In many areas reproduction is so plentiful as to present a mat of seedlings (FSFED 2009). One kilogram (2.2 lb) of average size cones produces approximately 3,300 seeds (FSFED 2009). Above 2000
H
MH
11. Propagule longevity?If properly stored, the seeds remain viable for 15 years (FSFED 2009). Greater than 25% of seeds survive 10-20 years in the soil
MH
MH
12. Reproductive period?Scotch pine continues to produce viable seeds until at least age 200 (FSFED 2009). Flowers produced at 5 to 8 years (FSFED 2009). Mature plant produces viable propagules for 10 years or more.
H
H
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Begin to produce male and female flowers at from 5 to 8 years (FSFED 2009). Greater than 5 years to reach sexual maturity.
L
MH
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Establishment of second-generation natural Scotch pine seedlings up to at least 1 km (0.6 mi) from the seed source is the rule rather than the exception (FSFED 2009). Like other pines wind – dispersal (Hear 2009). Very light, wind dispersed seeds.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?Establishment of second-generation natural Scotch pine seedlings up to at least 1 km (0.6 mi) from the seed source is the rule rather than the exception (FSFED 2009). Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
H


References

Arkive (2009) Arkive: images of life on earth: Pinus sylvestris L. Available at http://www.arkive.org/scots-pine/pinus-sylvestris/biology.html (viewed 17/06/09).

BIIN (2009) Biodiversity International: Pinus sylvestris L. http://www.bioversityinternational.org/publications/pdf/1037.pdf (viewed 17/06/09).

FSDA (2009) Forest Service department of Agriculture. Pinus sylvestris L. Available at http://hort.ufl.edu/trees/PINSYLA.pdf (viewed 17/06/09).

FSFED (2009) US Forest service. Pinus sylvestris L. Available at http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/pinus/sylvestris.htm (viewed 17/06/2009).

HEAR (2009) HEAR: Pinus patula as a weed. Available at http://www.hear.org/species/pinus_patula/ (viewed 17/06/09).

PFAF (2009) Plants for a future. Pinus sylvestris L. Available at http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pinus+sylvestris (viewed 17/06/2009).

Tuma, I. and Bilgili, E. (2006) Effect of heat on seed germination of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra ssp. Pallasiana. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15(2) 283–286. Also available at http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/WF05069.htm (viewed 17/06/09).


Global present distribution data references

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) Available at
http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 16/06/2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 16/06/2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 16/06/2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2008) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 16/06/2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 16/06/2009).


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