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Plantago (Plantago aristata)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Plantago aristata Michx.
Common name(s):

plantago
map showing the present distribution of plantago aristata
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

“Dry plains and prairies” (Spencer 1974). “Weedy species of dry, relatively infertile sites” (Steams 1960). “Introduced weed found in waste places” (Cody 2000). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “A weed of arable land” (Webb et al. 1988). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). P. aristata flowers in June and is “killed by summer drought” (Primack 1979). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee

Colours indicate possibility of Plantago aristata infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of plantago aristata
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“15-40 cm tall” (Miller and Miller 2005). Plantago aristata “a small rosette herb” (Primack and Miao 1992).
Minimal or negligible impact (ie. can go anywhere).
L
M
2. Reduce tourism?“15-40 cm tall” (Miller and Miller 2005). Plantago aristata “a small rosette herb” (Primack and Miao 1992).
Minor effects to aesthetics and/or recreational uses (ie. aware but not bothered or activity inhibited).
ML
M
3. Injurious to people?“Different surveys show a high incidence of allergic reactions, mainly hay fever, to plantain pollens” (Allergy Advisor- Zing Solutions 1998).
Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues (e.g. hayfever, minor rashes, minor damage from spines and burrs at certain times of year).
ML
ML
4. Damage to cultural sites?“15-40 cm tall” (Miller and Miller 2005). Plantago aristata “a small rosette herb” (Primack and Miao 1992).
Moderate visual effect.
ML
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?“Dry plains and prairies” (Spencer 1974). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
Not described as being aquatic.
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?“Dry plains and prairies” (Spencer 1974). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
Not described as being aquatic.
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?No information found.
M
L
8. Reduce biomass?Plantago aristata is one of the most numerous species at a study site in the USA. In the sandy pasture it occurs in, grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) are known to use “dead stems of last year’s growth of many of these forbs [as they] provide important perch sites” (McNair 1984).
Biomass may increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?Plantago aristata is one of the most numerous species at a study site in the USA. In the sandy pasture it occurs in, grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) are known to use “dead stems of last year’s growth of many of these forbs [as they] provide important perch sites” (McNair 1984). “Dry plains and prairies” (Spencer 1974). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire risk.
ML
ML
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Lowland Forest (V); CMA = Corangamite; Bioregion = Warnambool Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Very little displacement of any indigenous spp. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Herb-rich Foothill Forest (D); CMA = Port Phillip and Westernport; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Very little displacement of any indigenous spp. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (LC); CMA = West Gippsland; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Very little displacement of any indigenous spp. Sparse/ scattered infestations.
L
M
11. Impact on structure?“Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Minor or negligible effect on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
L
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
M
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?Plantago aristata is one of the most numerous species at a study site in the USA. In the sandy pasture it occurs in, grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) are known to use “dead stems of last year’s growth of many of these forbs [as they] provide important perch sites” (McNair 1984).
Provides very little support to desirable species.
H
M
16. Injurious to fauna?“15-40 cm tall” (Miller and Miller 2005). Plantago aristata “a small rosette herb” (Primack and Miao 1992). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
No effect.
L
ML
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“In dry grassland habitat, [feral] horses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
Supplies food for one or more minor pest species. (eg. blackbirds or environmental insect pests).
ML
MH
18. Provides harbour?Plantago aristata is one of the most numerous species at a study site in the USA. In the sandy pasture it occurs in, grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) are known to use “dead stems of last year’s growth of many of these forbs [as they] provide important perch sites” (McNair 1984).
Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest spp, but may provide for minor pest spp.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “A weed of arable land…Occurs occasionally in imported crop seeds” (Webb et al. 1988). “In dry grassland habitat, [feral] horses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Not reported to be a major weed in agriculture affecting yield.
Little or negligible affect on quantity of yield.
L
M
20. Impact quality?“A weed of arable land…Occurs occasionally in imported crop seeds” (Webb et al. 1988).
Minor impact on quality of produce (eg < 5% reduction).
ML
M
21. Affect land value?“Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “A weed of arable land…Occurs occasionally in imported crop seeds” (Webb et al. 1988). “In dry grassland habitat, [feral] horses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Little or none.
L
M
22. Change land use?“Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “A weed of arable land…Occurs occasionally in imported crop seeds” (Webb et al. 1988). “In dry grassland habitat, [feral] horses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Little or no change.
L
M
23. Increase harvest costs?“Clover fields, meadows, pastures, and waster places; on rather dry soils” (Muenscher 1955). “A weed of arable land…Occurs occasionally in imported crop seeds” (Webb et al. 1988). “In dry grassland habitat, [feral] horses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004). “Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Little or none.
L
M
24. Disease host/vector?No information found.
M
L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“After storage for several months in the laboratory (at 72F), seeds were placed in petri dishes on moistened filter paper and germinated at a 12 hour photoperiod in the 60 and 80F constant temperature chambers; all lots germinated within 2 to 4 days…Seed matured at 60F germinated 1 to 2 days later than that matured at 80F…Maturation of P. aristata seed normally occurs in Indiana during June and July” (Steams 1960).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
M
2. Establishment requirements?“Early appearing plant in new forest plantations after soil disturbance, especially sandy soils, soon disappearing” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010).
Requires more specific requirements to establish (eg. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?“Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). “In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
Establishes in relatively intact OR only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (eg. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops or in well-established pastures.
MH
ML
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Plantago aristata “a small rosette herb” (Primack and Miao 1992).
Other.
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?Not described as allelopathic in Primack (1979), Primack and Miao (1992), Miller and Miller (2005), Allergy Advisor- Zing Solutions (1998), Spencer (1974), Muenscher (1955), Conservation Commission of Missouri (2010), Missouriplants, (undated), Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt (2004), McNair (1984), Webb et al. (1988), Steams (1960), Bassett (1973) or Cody (2000).
None.
L
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“In dry grassland habitat, hoses fed…on Plantago aristata…In developed areas, horses consumed…young shoots of… Plantago aristata” (Rheinhardt and Rheinhardt 2004).
May be consumed but non-preferred or consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering /seed production under moderate herbivory pressure (where moderate = normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
MH
ML
7. Normal growth rate?“Annual or short-lived perennial” (Cody 2000). “15-40 cm tall” (Miller and Miller 2005).
Moderately rapid growth that will equal competitive species of the same life form.
MH
ML
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“Dry plains and prairies” (Spencer 1974). “Weedy species of dry, relatively infertile sites” (Steams 1960). “Pastures, glades, waste ground, roadsides, railroads” (Missouriplants, undated). “Glades usually are small, rocky openings on hills in forests, woodlands and prairies” (Conservation Commission of Missouri 2010). P. aristata flowers in June and is “killed by summer drought” (Primack 1979).
Not tolerant to waterlogging or drought.. Unlikely to tolerate salinity as not described in saline habitats. Unknown to frost or fire.
Maybe tolerant of one stress, susceptible to at least two.
L
ML
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“Spreads by seeds that persist in the soil” (Miller and Miller 2005). “This species is self-compatible” (Bassett 1973).
Sexual (either cross or self-pollination).
L
ML
10. Number of propagules produced?Based on photos there are at least 44 flowers per inflorescence and 13 inflorescence per plant. “Flowers…seeds 2” (Missouriplants, undated).
44 flowers/infl. X 13 infl/plant= 572 flowers/plant.
572 flowers x 2 seeds/flower= 1144 seeds per plant.
1000-2000.
MH
ML
11. Propagule longevity?“Annual or short-lived perennial” (Cody 2000). “The seeds of…Plantago [aristata] are hard and dry and probably also have prolonged dormancy” (Primack and Miao 1992). “Spreads by seeds that persist in the soil” (Miller and Miller 2005). “Seeds of P. aristata have little or no primary dormancy…Seeds rarely germinated the same year they are produced because the capsules do not dehisce readily and remain on erect spikes until late fall when the plants dies and finally falls over intact” (Bassett 1973).
Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5 years.
L
ML
12. Reproductive period?P. aristata plants normally die after setting seed, in rare years of heavy summer rain the plants will enter a second period of growth and produce another crop of seeds” (Primack 1979).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for only 1–2 years.
ML
MH
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“Annual or short-lived perennial” (Cody 2000).
Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules, or vegetative propagules become separate individuals, in under a year.
H
M
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?No information found.
M
L
15. How far do they disperse?No information found.
M
L


References

Allergy Advisor- Zing Solutions (1998) English Plantain/Ribwort/Buckhorn Plantin (Weed). Available at: http://www.allallergy.net/fapaidfind.cfm?cdeoc=568 (verified 18/06/2010).

Bassett I.J. (1973) The Plantains of Canada. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture; Ottawa.

Cody W.J. (2000) Flora of the Yukon Territory. National Research Council of Canada. Ottawa.

Conservation Commission of Missouri (2010) Amazing Glades- Missouri’s Mini Deserts. Available at: http://mdc.mo.gov/kids/out-in/2006/08/1.htm (verified 21/06/2010).

McNair D. (1984) Breeding status of the Grasshopper Sparrow in the coastal plain of the Carolinas, with notes on behaviour. Winter edition.

Miller J.H. and Miller K.V. (2005) Forest Plants of the Southeast and Their Wildlife Uses. Revised Edn. Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

Missouriplants, (undated) Plantago aristata Michx. http://www.missouriplants.com/Others/Plantago_aristata_page.html (verified 17/06/2010).

Muenscher W.C. (1955) Weeds. 2nd Edn. Cornell University Press; Ithaca and London.

Primack R.B. (1979) Reproductive effort in annual and perennial species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae). The American Naturalist. 114:1.

Primack R.B. and Miao S.L. (1992) Dispersal can limit local plant distribution. Conservation Biology. 6(4).

Rheinhardt R.D. and Rheinhardt M.C. (2004) Feral horse seasonal habitat use on a coastal barrier spit. J. Range Manage. 57(3).

Spencer (1974) All About Weeds. Dover, New York. Dover Publications Inc., New York.

Steams F. (1960) Effects of seed environment during maturation on seedling growth. Ecology. 41:1.

Webb CJ, Sykes WR and Garnock-Jones PJ. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4. Botany Division, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand.


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 22/06/2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 21/04/2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 21/04/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 09/03/2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2003) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 21/04/2010)


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