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Mediterranean daisy (Urospermum dalechampii)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Urospermum dalechampii (L.) Scop. ex F.W. Schmidt
Common name(s):

Mediterranean daisy

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

Recorded on the coast of Italy (Forbes, 2000) and in Allocasuarina verticillata forest, Eucalyptus viminalis grassy woodland, Danthonia/Austrostipa grassland, Eucalypts amygdalina forest on sandstone and Themeda native grassland in Tasmania (Gouldthorpe, 2002); grassy woodland with herb-rich tussock grassland understorey (Kirkpatrick, 2004); also invading roads, pasture, wasteland and perennial crops (Banf, 1983).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forest private plantation; forest public plantation; horticulture; pasture dryland.

Broad vegetation types
Coastal scrubs and grassland; coastal grassy woodland; lowland forest; box ironbark forest; inland slopes woodland; dry foothills forest; montane dry woodland; grassland; plains grassy woodland; herb-rich woodland; montane grassy woodland; rainshadow woodland.

Colours indicate possibility of Urospermum dalechampii infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of the Mediterranean daisy
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Unlikely to reduce human access.
L
MH
2. Reduce tourism?“Strongly resembles common dandelion in appearance.” (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Recreational users may be aware of this weed, but unlikely to be bothered by it.
L
MH
3. Injurious to people?Skin irritation from hand removal has been reported, probably due to the slightly bristly foliage and sap (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.).
ML
MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?This small herb (Gouldthorpe, 2002) is unlikely to have any visual effect on cultural sites.
L
MH
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?“Appears to be spreading rapidly, especially on drier sites” (DPI, 2006). No evidence that this species impacts on waterways.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?“Appears to be spreading rapidly, especially on drier sites” (DPI, 2006). No evidence that this species impacts on waterways.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). This short-lived/biennial (SecretSeeds, 2006) could replace perennial grass species, then leave bare ground open to erosion when it dies. Moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
ML
M
8. Reduce biomass?Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Rosette with seasonal flower stems is a life form with slightly less biomass than a grass.
MH
M
9. Change fire regime?Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). Summer dormant (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Likely to reduce the fuel load of grasslands, reducing the frequency and intensity of fires.
MH
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC=Lowland Forest (V); CMA=Corangamite; Bioreg=Warrnambool Plain; CLIMATE potential=H. Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). The most abundant of the exotic perennial herbs in the temperate grassy woodlands on the Domain (Kirkpatrick, 2004). Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Major effect on grassland species. Major displacement of some dominant species within the ground cover layer.
MH
M
(b) medium value EVCEVC=Grassy Dry Forest (D); CMA=Corangamite; Bioreg=Otway Ranges; CLIMATE potential=H. Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). The most abundant of the exotic perennial herbs in the temperate grassy woodlands on the Domain (Kirkpatrick, 2004). Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Major effect on grassland species. Major displacement of some dominant species within the ground cover layer.
MH
M
(c) low value EVCEVC=Herb-rich Foothill Forest (LC); CMA=North East; Bioreg=Northern Inland Slopes; CLIMATE potential=H. Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). The most abundant of the exotic perennial herbs in the temperate grassy woodlands on the Domain (Kirkpatrick, 2004). Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Major effect on grassland species. Major displacement of some dominant species within the ground cover layer.
MH
M
11. Impact on structure?Competes with native grassland species in Tasmania (DPI, 2006). The most abundant of the exotic perennial herbs in the temperate grassy woodlands on the Domain (Kirkpatrick, 2004). Leaves form a rosette 8-15cm radius and stems grow to 60 cm (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Major effect on grassland species.
MH
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Not known to have naturalised in Victoria (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Documented as potentially threatening to the threatened species Scleranthus fasciculatus in Tasmania. This plant is also listed as rare in Victoria (DSE, 2005). Not documented as posing an additional risk to threatened flora.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Not known to have naturalised in Victoria (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Not documented as posing an additional risk to threatened fauna.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Can achieve densities of up to 90% cover, crowding out native grasses that are fodder for browsing animals (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.), reducing the carrying capacity at the infestation site.
MH
MH
15. Benefits fauna?No information.
M
L
16. Injurious to fauna?No information.
M
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?No information.
M
L
18. Provides harbour?No information.
M
L
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Found in pasture and in perennial crops (Hanf, 1983), but assessed as “present…but not given a rating as an agricultural weed, either because it was not considered a problem or because it was not known to occur in agricultural areas at present” (Groves et al, 2003). Its ability to compete with native grassland species (DPI, 2006) suggests that it may reduce the carrying capacity of pasture.
ML
M
20. Impact quality?No evidence for reduced quality.
L
L
21. Affect land value?No evidence for reduced land value.
L
L
22. Change land use?No evidence for changed land use.
L
L
23. Increase harvest costs?No evidence for increased harvest costs.
L
L
24. Disease host/vector?Host for a grapevine nepovirus (along with many other common weeds) that causes leaf lesions and discolouration, but plants recover (Harris et al, 2002). Host to minor disease.
MH
H


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Appears able to germinate any time that rainfall and temperatures are adequate (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.) Natural seasonal disturbance.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?Seedlings survive in open woodland and grassland, but not under complete canopy cover (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.).
MH
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?Able to invade forests, grasslands and grassy woodland. In Tasmania it occurs in parks and on roadside verges. Tends to propagate rapidly following disturbance (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Establishes in highly disturbed ecosystems.
ML
MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Perennial herb, resprouting from a thick rootstock in autumn, following summer dormancy (Gouldthorpe, 2002).
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?None found, but literature is scarce on this species.
M
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Hemicryptophyte (Giner et al, 1993). Resprouting from a thick rootstock in autumn, following summer dormancy (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Mowing appears to give this plant a competitive advantage (Kirkpatrick et al, 2005). Nibbled by snails and slugs, but not to the detriment of the plant (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.). Able to resprout following leaf loss.
MH
MH
7. Normal growth rate?“Appears to be spreading rapidly, especially on drier sites” (DPI, 2006). Able to grow from a seedling to a mature plant in less than 2 months. Extremely rapid growth (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.).
H
MH
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“Appears to be spreading rapidly, especially on drier sites” (DPI, 2006). Fire promotes vegetative growth; distribution in its native range indicates this species may be frost tolerant (Gouldthorpe, 2002). Has formed a dense infestation in a coastal situation exposed to salt spray; may tolerate waterlogging; very drought-tolerant (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.). High fire, drought and salinity tolerance, some frost tolerance, possible tolerance of waterlogging.
H
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemVegetative- new shoots sprout from lateral roots; and by seed (Gouldthorpe, 2002).
H
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?Image (Jordan, 2006) shows approximately 400 seeds per inflorescence, and at least 20 infloresences. 400 x 20 = 8000.
H
M
11. Propagule longevity?Unknown. If similar to other Asteraceae, would expect 4-5 years. Seeds are large for Asteraceae, suggesting a longer than usual survival period (Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.).
M
l
12. Reproductive period?Biennial or short-lived perennial (SecretSeeds, 2006). Assume plant may live between 3 & 10 years.
MH
M
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Biennial (SecretSeeds, 2006). Produces propagules between 1-2 years after germination, however, may reach reproductive maturity in less than one year. Not clear from the literature.
MH
L
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?May be spread by wind (Gouldthorpe, 2002).
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?Wind may spread seed (Gouldthorpe, 2002) easily 200-1000 m, but very few would reach more than 1 km.
MH
MH


References

Banf, M 1983, The arable weeds of Europe with their seedlings and seeds, BASF, UK

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) 2005, Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne, Victoria.

Department Primary Industries, Tasmania (DPI) 2006, Draft Weed Management Plan Mediterranean daisy Urospermum dalechampii, http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/TPRY-5H4UH8?open, viewed: 20/10/2006.

Giner RM, Recio MC, Cuellar MJ, Manez S, Peris JB, Stubing G, Mateu E & Rios J 1993, ‘A Taxonomical Study of the Subtribe Leontodontinae Based on the Distribution of Phenolic Compounds,’ Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 21(5), pp. 613-616.

Gouldthorpe, J 2002, Tasmanian Weed Status Report: Mediterranean daisy (Urospermum dalechampii). Nature Conservation report 02/05. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania.

Groves RH, Hosking JR, Batianoff GN, Cooke DA, Cowie ID, Johnson RW, Keighery GJ, Lepschi BJ, Mitchell AA, Moerkerk M, Randall RP, Rozefelds AC, Walsh NG and Waterhouse BM 2003, Weed Categories for Natural and Agricultural Ecosystem Management, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, Australia.

Harris A, Gibbs AJ & Gibbs MJ 2002, Nepoviruses and Their Diagnosis in Plants, Biosecurity Australia, Canberra, Australia.

Jordan, G. 2006, Key to Tasmanian Dicotyledons, version 2.9, University of Tasmania, viewed: 21/11/2006, www.utas.edu.au/dicotkey/DicotKey/ASTERACEAE/gUrospermum.htm

Kirkpatrick JB, 2004, ‘Vegetation change in an urban grassy woodland 1974-2000,’ Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 52, pp. 597-608.
Secret Seeds, 2006, Secret Seeds TUVWXYZ, UK, viewed:21/11/2006, http://www.secretseeds.com/acatalog/TUVWXYZ.html


Global present distribution data references

Andrew Crane, Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, Tasmania, 2006, pers. comm.

Forbes, R.S. 2001, ‘Spring Flowers of Sorrento and Rome,’ The Alpine Gardener, Vol. 69(3), p. 380-387.

Garbari, F. & Von Loewenstern, A.B. 2005, ‘Flora Pisana: an annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Province of Pisa,’ Atti. Soc. Nat., Mem., Serie B, Vol. 112, pp. 1-125 [Italian].

Giner RM, Recio MC, Cuellar MJ, Manez S, Peris JB, Stubing G, Mateu E & Rios J 1993, ‘A Taxonomical Study of the Subtribe Leontodontinae Based on the Distribution of Phenolic Compounds,’ Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 21(5), pp. 613-616.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) 2006, Global biodiversity information facility: Prototype data portal, viewed 22/11/2006, http://www.gbif.org/

Gouldthorpe, J 2002, Tasmanian Weed Status Report: Mediterranean daisy (Urospermum dalechampii). Nature Conservation report 02/05. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania.

Universitšt Ulm, Ruhr-Universitšt Bochum, ‘SysTax - detailed information on taxon Urospermum dalechampii,’ viewed:22/11/2006, http://www.biologie.uni-ulm.de/cgi-bin/query_all/details.pl?id=3322&stufe=G&typ=PFL&sid=T&lang=e&pr=nix


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