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Laurestinus (Viburnum tinus)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Viburnum tinus L.
Common name(s):

laurestinus
map showing the present distribution of viburnum tinus
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

“The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes [such as] Viburnum tinus” (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Able to tolerate temperatures only as low as -18C/0F” (Macoboy 1986). Fully hard= plant can withstand temperatures down to -15C (Brickell 1996). “Is very tolerant of shade and salt spray” Tolerances: wind (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Light requirement: plant grows in part
shade/part sun... Drought tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerances: poor…Will tolerate fairly poor soils” (UOF 1999). “Suitable for damp shade, coastal areas and chalky soil” (BN&GC, no date). “Hardiness: Very hardy, drought tolerant, seaside… Tolerates heavy clay soils…Plant weakness: Does not tolerate very dry or very wet soils” (FMP, no date).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; rainforest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland.

Colours indicate possibility of Viburnum tinus infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of viburnum tinus
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969).
Major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
M
2. Reduce tourism?“Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969).
Some recreational uses affected.
MH
M
3. Injurious to people?V. tinus…winter flowering evergreen with poisonous fr.” (fruit) (Mabberley 1997). “The fruits of viburnums may cause mild stomach upset if ingested” (Brickell 1996).
Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues (e.g. hayfever, minor rashes, minor damage from spines and burrs at certain times of year).
ML
MH
4. Damage to cultural sites?“Roots: usually not a problem” (UOF 1999). “Scented blossom…Provides valuable winter interest…Attractive form or foliage for all year interest” (FMP, no date).
Little or negligible effect on aesthetics or structure of site.
L
ML
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?‘Grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola). ‘Dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes that present fleshy fruits, such as…Viburnum tinus’ (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Not described as aquatic. Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
MH
6. Impact water quality?Viburnum tinus is evergreen’ (Karlsson 2005). ‘It grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola). ‘The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes that present fleshy fruits, such as…Viburnum tinus’ (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006).
As an evergreen plant it is not likely to loose enough leaves at once to contribute to a sudden spike in nutrient levels and is not described as aquatic. No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
MH
7. Increase soil erosion?No information found.
M
L
8. Reduce biomass?“Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Vegetation is dominated by the laureltinus (locally known as ‘follao’), Viburnum tinus in the understorey” (Delgado Garcia 2002). ‘It grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola). ‘The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes that present fleshy fruits, such as…Viburnum tinus’ (Nogales et al. 1996).
Biomass may increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?“Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Vegetation is dominated by the laureltinus (locally known as ‘follao’), Viburnum tinus in the understorey” (Delgado Garcia 2002). ‘It grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola). ‘The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes that present fleshy fruits, such as…Viburnum tinus’ (Nogales et al. 1996).
Minor change to either frequency or intensity of fire risk.
ML
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Valley Grassy Forest (V); CMA =Corangamite; Bioregion =Victorian Volcanic Plains;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Woods [and] thickets” (Polunin 1969). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).“The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes [such as] Viburnum tinus” (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Able to tolerate temperatures only as low as -18C/0F” (Macoboy 1986). Fully hard= plant can withstand temperatures down to -15C (Brickell 1996). “Is very tolerant of shade and salt spray” Tolerances: wind (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Light requirement: plant grows in part shade/part sun...Drought tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerance: poor…Will tolerate fairly poor soils” (UOF 1999). “Suitable for damp shade, coastal areas and chalky soil” (BN&GC, no date). “Hardiness: Very hardy, drought tolerant, seaside… Tolerates heavy clay soils…Plant weakness: Does not tolerate very dry or very wet soils” (FMP, no date).
May cause major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Grassy Dry Forest (D); CMA =Goulburn Broken; Bioregion =Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Woods [and] thickets” (Polunin 1969). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).“The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes [such as] Viburnum tinus” (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Able to tolerate temperatures only as low as -18C/0F” (Macoboy 1986). Fully hard= plant can withstand temperatures down to -15C (Brickell 1996). “Is very tolerant of shade and salt spray” Tolerances: wind (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Light requirement: plant grows in part shade/part sun...Drought tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerance: poor…Will tolerate fairly poor soils” (UOF 1999). “Suitable for damp shade, coastal areas and chalky soil” (BN&GC, no date). “Hardiness: Very hardy, drought tolerant, seaside… Tolerates heavy clay soils…Plant weakness: Does not tolerate very dry or very wet soils” (FMP, no date).
May cause major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Wet Forest (LC); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion =Highlands- Far East;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Woods [and] thickets” (Polunin 1969). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).“The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes [such as] Viburnum tinus” (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Able to tolerate temperatures only as low as -18C/0F” (Macoboy 1986). Fully hard= plant can withstand temperatures down to -15C (Brickell 1996). “Is very tolerant of shade and salt spray” Tolerances: wind (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Light requirement: plant grows in part shade/part sun...Drought tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerance: poor…Will tolerate fairly poor soils” (UOF 1999). “Suitable for damp shade, coastal areas and chalky soil” (BN&GC, no date). “Hardiness: Very hardy, drought tolerant, seaside… Tolerates heavy clay soils…Plant weakness: Does not tolerate very dry or very wet soils” (FMP, no date).
May cause major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
H
11. Impact on structure?“Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Woods [and] thickets” (Polunin 1969). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on <60% of the floral strata.
MH
ML
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
M
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?‘Fruits of V. tinus are consumed and dispersed by birds, and the present results suggest that removal of pulp from seeds by frugivores is an important factor for germination’ (Karlsson 2005). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).
May provide some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?“Tolerances: rabbits” (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Rattus rattus removed the bulk of V. tinus fruit…Wide periods of fruit persistence allow seed predators to deplete the bulk of the crops. On oceanic islands, extended fruiting periods can also contribute to sustaining high densities of rats that exert huge levels of seed predation” (Delgado Garcia 2002). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Not described as having large spines or burrs dangerous to fauna, nor toxic, or causes allergies. No effect
L
ML
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“Tolerances: rabbits” (Backyard Gardener, no date).
Supplies food serious pest (e.g. rabbits), but at low levels (e.g. foliage).
MH
ML
18. Provides harbour?“Tolerances: rabbits” (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Is an evergreen shrub…with a dense and bushy habit” (Cocozza Talia, no date). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006). “Dominant species in sclerophyllous shrubland’ (Karlsson 2005). “Rattus rattus removed the bulk of V.tinus fruit…Wide periods of fruit persistence allow seed predators to deplete the bulk of the crops. On oceanic islands, extended fruiting periods can also contribute to sustaining high densities of rats that exert huge levels of seed predation” (Delgado Garcia 2002).
The habit of this plant may have the capacity to provide harbour and permanent warrens for foxes and rabbits throughout the year.
H
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?No information found.
M
L
20. Impact quality?No information found.
M
L
21. Affect land value?No information found.
M
L
22. Change land use?No information found.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?No information found.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?Phytophthora ramorum is a recently described pathogen causing oak mortality in California….Has been found causing twig blight of species of Rhododendron, and occasionally stem base decay of Vibirnum….Although, P. ramorum is therefore already found in parts of Europe there is concern about its threat to forestry and native plants, in addition to other sectors of the horticultural industry” (Lane et al. 2003). “Phytophthora hedrainandra De Cock & Man in Veld is a new species first described from Viburnum sp. In the Netherlands. It has since been reported in Italy and Mallorca (Spain) causing stem canker and root rot on potted Viburnum tinus L., and blights on leaves and stems of various Rhododendron cultivars in the USA. In addition, it has recently been identified from a fungal culture collection in Australia’ (Moralejo et al. 2007).
Severity of impacts unclear, need more information.
M
L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Seedlings would probably emerge at the same occasion regardless of when dispersal occurred during a winter season (autumn to spring)… Removal of the exocarp and mesocarp was necessary for embryo growth and germination in V. tinus seeds… Fruits of V. tinus are consumed and dispersed by birds, and the present results suggest that removal of pulp from seeds by frugivores is an important factor for germination’ (Karlsson 2005).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?‘It grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?‘It grows in shadowed areas, maquis and evergreen woods as well as along the coast’ (Cocozza Talia and La Viola). ‘The dense evergreen laurel forest along the north-facing slopes of the western islands is constituted by trees and bushes that present fleshy fruits, such as…Viburnum tinus’ (Nogales et al. 1996). “Woods, thickets, stony places” (Polunin 1969). “Occasionally naturalised in moist forests near habitation” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. open-woods).
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“Small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Other.
L
M
5. Allelopathic properties?No information found. (Rice 1984; Shepherd 2004; Cooper and Johnson 1984; Connor 1977).
Possibly none.
L
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“Tolerances: rabbits” (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Rattus rattus removed the bulk of V.tinus fruit…Wide periods of fruit persistence allow seed predators to deplete the bulk of the crops. On oceanic islands, extended fruiting periods can also contribute to sustaining high densities of rats that exert huge levels of seed predation” (Delgado Garcia 2002). In relation to fire, “species with high mean survival values [included] Viburnum tinus L., [with] 83% survival [and] had resprouts emerging from rootcrowns” (Lopez-Soria and Castell).
Given that this species can tolerate rabbits, contributes to sustaining high densities of rats and can resprout from rootcrowns, it may be consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering /seed production under moderate herbivory pressure (where moderate = normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
MH
ML
7. Normal growth rate?“Fast growing plant” (FMP, no date).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
ML
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“They are mostly hardy; of those shown, V. tinus is the least so, being able to tolerate temperatures only as low as -18/0F” (Macoboy 1986). Fully hard= plant can withstand temperatures down to -15C (Brickell 1996). In relation to fire, “species with high mean survival values [included] Viburnum tinus L., [with] 83% survival [and] had resprouts emerging from rootcrowns” (Lopez-Soria and Castell). “Is very tolerant of shade and salt spray” (Backyard Gardener, no date). “Drought tolerance: moderate. Soil salt tolerances: poor…Will tolerate fairly poor soils” (UOF 1999). “Suitable for damp shade, coastal areas and chalky soil, but not for exposed/windy locations, dry shade or wet sites (BN&GC, no date). “Hardiness: Very hardy, drought tolerant, seaside friendly…Plant weakness: Does not tolerate very dry or very wet soils” (FMP, no date).
Highly tolerant of frost and fire, some tolerance to drought and salinity but not tolerant of wet soil, i.e waterlogging.
Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, waterlogging, and salinity, and may be tolerant of another. Susceptible to at least one.
MH
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemViburnum tinus is self-incompatible…Pollination is carried out by insects…Apis mellifica and Bombus terrestris… Nectar production, though present, is very low” (Nebot and Mateu 1991).
Sexual, cross-pollination.
L
H
10. Number of propagules produced?‘The fruit is a one-seeded drupe’ (Karlsson 2005).
Not enough information.
M
L
11. Propagule longevity?No information found.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?No information found.
M
L
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“The present study suggests that the first complete seedlings of V. tinus would start to emerge, in the Mediterranean region, 1.5 years after fruit maturation in October. Seed dispersal would occur during winter, embryo growth during the first summer, root protrusion and establishment during the second autumn and winter, and cotyledon emergence during the second spring. Seedlings would probably emerge at the same occasion regardless of when dispersal occurred during a winter season (autumn to spring). (Karlsson et al. 2005). “Shrub or small tree to about 4m high” (Richardson et al. 2006).
Given the time it takes to establish as a seedling and the eventual height, it possibly takes at least 2-5 years minimum, to reach sexual maturity.
ML
ML
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“Fruits of V. tinus are consumed and dispersed by birds, and the present results suggest that removal of pulp from seeds by frugivores is an important factor for germination” (Karlsson 2005). “Apart from E. rubecula, other frugivorous birds (especially endemic Bolle’s pigeon C. bollii Godman and the blackbird Turdus merula L.) could potentially consume some fruit in V. tinus study site” (Delgado Garcia 2002).
Bird dispersed seed.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?“Fruits of V. tinus are consumed and dispersed by birds, and the present results suggest that removal of pulp from seeds by frugivores is an important factor for germination” (Karlsson 2005). “Apart from E. rubecula, other frugivorous birds (especially endemic Bolle’s pigeon C. bollii Godman and the blackbird Turdus merula L.) could potentially consume some fruit in V. tinus study site” (Delgado Garcia 2002).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometre.
H
MH


References

Backyard Gardener (no date) Viburnum tinus (Eve Price Laurstinus). Available at: http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_bdc9.html (verified 04/02/2010).

BN&GC (Buckingham Nurseries and Garden Centre) (no date). Viburnum tinus. Headging Plants, Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. Available at: http://www.buckinghamnurseries.co.uk/acatalog/product_10323.html#aVIBTT (verified 02/02/2010).

Brickell C. (Ed.) (1996) A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. The Royal Horticultural Society. Covent Garden Books, London.

Cocozza Talia M.A. and La Viola A.M.F. (no date) Identification of propagation methods for some species common to Albania and Southern Italy. Options Mediterraneennes. Serie A n. 47.

Connor H.E. (1977) The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington.

Cooper MR and Johnson AW. (1984) Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.

Delgado Garcia J.D. (2002) Interaction between introduced rats and a frugivore bird-plant system in a relict island forest. Journal of Natural History. 36, 1247-1258. FMP (Find meplants.co.uk) (no date) Viburnum tinus. Available at: http://www.findmeplants.co.uk/plant-viburnum-tinus-1158.aspx (verified) 02/02/2010).

Karlsson L.M. (2005) Complex Combination of Seed Dormancy and Seedling Development Determine Emergence of Viburnum tinus (Caprifolicaceae). Annals of Botany 95: 323- 330.

Lane C.R, Beals P.A, Hughes K.J.D, Griffin R.L, Munro D, Brasier C.M. and Webber J.F. (2003) First outbreak of Phytophthora ramorum in England, on Viburnum tinus. Available at: http://www.bspp.org.uk/publications/new-disease-reports/jan2003/2002-39.asp (accessed 29/01/2010).

Lopez-Soria L. and Castell C. (1992) Comparative genetic survival after fire in woody Mediterranean species. Oecologia. 91: 493-499.

Mabberley DJ. (1997) The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. 2nd Ed., Cambridge University Press, Great Britain.

Macoboy S. (1986) What Flower Is That? 2nd Edn. Lansdowne Press, Sydney, Aukland, London, New York.

Moralejo E, Belbahri L, Clemente A, Lefort F. and Descals E. (2007) Short communication. A new host and phenotypic variation of Phytophthora hedraiandra in Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 5(1), 82-85.

Nebot J.R. and Mateu I. (1991) Some observations on pollination in a Mediterranean shrub, Viburnum tinus L. (Caprifoliaceae). Acta Horticultuae. 288.

Nogales. M, Medina F.M. and Valido A. (1996) Indirect seed dispersal by the feral cats Felis catus in island ecosystems (Canary Islands). Ecography. 19: 3-6.

Richardson FJ, Richardson RG and Shepherd RCH. (2006) Weeds of the South-east. An Identification Guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson. Meredith.

Polunin O. (1969) Flowers of Europe: A Field Guide. Oxford University Press. London.

Rice EL. (1984) Allelopathy. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando.

Shepherd RCH. (2004) Pretty But Poisonous. Plants Poisonous to People, An Illustrated Guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson. Meredith, Australia.

UOF (University of Florida) (1999) Viburnum tinus, Fact sheet FPS-607. Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2007) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 08/02/2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 19/01/2010).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 19/01/2010).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 19/01/2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19/01/2010).



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