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Hudson pear (Cylindropuntia rosea)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb.
Common name(s):

Hudson pear
Map showing the present distribution of hudson pear
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

“Found in areas of north-western NSW receiving 400-500 mm of mean annual rainfall and with mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ranges of 17-36C and 4-22C respectively. Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC, with naturalised populations in areas receiving 250-350 mm mean annual rainfall. The species also invades heavier and deeper grey clays of the floodplains. Both species are invasive in woodland and scrub areas of north-western NSW and in grazing areas of predominantly native species or areas sown to exotic grasses and herbs” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Hudson pear occurs in a variety of habitats including eucalypt woodlands, alluvial floodplains, shrublands and rocky outcrops” (Holtkamp 2006). “C. rosea prefers an arid to semi-arid, sub-tropical climate and can tolerate high temperatures during the day and freezing temperatures at night” (Csurhes 2010).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Pasture dryland; pasture irrigated

Broad vegetation types
heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; foothills forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Cylindropuntia rosea infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
Map showing the potential distribution of hudson pear
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“A branched shrub cactus with a cylindrical trunk, most plants low growing, but some reaching 1.6m high and to 3m wide. Stem segments rope like, cylindrical, green to grey-green, up to 90cm long and 4cm wide (excluding spines)... Spines 4-8 (up to 20 on older stems), white to silvery, up to 4.5cm long on outer segments” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “Has particularly vicious spines which are capable of penetrating footwear and even vehicle tyres. Spines are encased in a detachable sheath which may remain embedded in a wound even after the body of the spine is removed” (Holtkamp 2006). “White spines up to 3.5cm long cover the whole plant” (Osmond 2006).
Major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
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2. Reduce tourism?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines, which can cause human injury and economic loss. The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Fragments of the detachable papery sheath that surrounds the spines often remain embedded after the spine is removed, causing infection. Minor human injury commonly results, particularly to opal miners, pastoralists, shooters and wild game harvesters, and to tourists” (Johnson et al. 2009). “If allowed to spread, the needle-sharp spines of C. rosea have the potential to jeopardise recreational activities such as camping and bushwalking. Once in the skin, the spines are not easily removed and generally require a pair of pliers to be dislodged. The spines can penetrate boots and car tyres. There is evidence of koala deaths and one human fatality at Lightning Ridge when a person fell into a clump of C. rosea and suffered a heart attack after not being able to stand up. Based on visual observations made by the author around Lightning Ridge, C. rosea does not appear to require disturbance to become established and can invade relatively well-managed, uncleared and un-grazed areas of native vegetation. As such, it could become a significant problem not only on grazing land but also national parks of south-western Queensland” (Csurhes 2010).
Major impact on recreation. Weeds obvious to most visitors, with visitor response complaints and a major reduction in visitors.
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3. Injurious to people?“A branched shrub cactus with a cylindrical trunk, most plants low growing, but some reaching 1.6m high and to 3m wide. Stem segments rope like, cylindrical, green to grey-green, up to 90cm long and 4cm wide (excluding spines). Spines 4-8 (up to 20 on older stems), white to silvery, up to 4.5cm long on outer segments” (Johnson et al. 2009). “There is evidence of koala deaths and one human fatality at Lightning Ridge when a person fell into a clump of C. rosea and suffered a heart attack after not being able to stand up” (Csurhes 2010). “Has particularly vicious spines which are capable of penetrating footwear and even vehicle tyres. Spines are encased in a detachable sheath which may remain embedded in a wound even after the body of the spine is removed” (Holtkamp 2006). “White spines up to 3.5cm long cover the whole plant” (Osmond 2006).
Large spines or burrs, extremely toxic, and/or cause serious allergies to humans throughout year.
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4. Damage to cultural sites?“Flowering usually occurs in spring to summer, with showy rose-coloured pink to purple petal-like segments about 5cm wide” (Biosecurity QLD, undated). “Old homestead dumps and mine sites are common places where cacti flourish” (Chuk 2010). “Based on visual observations made by the author around Lightning Ridge, C. rosea does not appear to require disturbance to become established and can invade relatively well-managed, uncleared and un-grazed areas of native vegetation. As such, it could become a significant problem not only on grazing land but also national parks of south-western Queensland” (Csurhes 2010).
Moderate visual effect.
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Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC. In north-western NSW, C. rosea is common on the lighter, stony, red earths, often found on slightly raised ridges off the surrounding riverine flooplains. The species also invades heaver and deeper grey clays of the floodplains C. rosea grows up to 1.6m high on these deeper more fertile soils, but rarely reaches above 1m on the shallow red earths. One record from SA indicates C. rosea can grow on talus slopes on light brown calcareous loams below limestone cliffs, while in the NT plants have been found at the base of gneiss hill. Both species are invasive in woodland and scrub areas of north-western NSW and in grazing areas of predominantly native species or areas sown to exotic grasses and herbs. (Johnson et al. 2009). “Hudson pear occurs in a variety of habitats including eucalypt woodlands, alluvial floodplains, shrublands and rocky outcrops” (Holtkamp 2006).
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
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6. Impact water quality?Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC. In north-western NSW, C. rosea is common on the lighter, stony, red earths, often found on slightly raised ridges off the surrounding riverine flooplains. The species also invades heaver and deeper grey clays of the floodplains C. rosea grows up to 1.6m high on these deeper more fertile soils, but rarely reaches above 1m on the shallow red earths. One record from SA indicates C. rosea can grow on talus slopes on light brown calcareous loams below limestone cliffs, while in the NT plants have been found at the base of gneiss hill. Both species are invasive in woodland and scrub areas of north-western NSW and in grazing areas of predominantly native species or areas sown to exotic grasses and herbs. (Johnson et al. 2009). “Hudson pear occurs in a variety of habitats including eucalypt woodlands, alluvial floodplains, shrublands and rocky outcrops” (Holtkamp 2006).
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
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7. Increase soil erosion?One record from SA indicates C. rosea can grow on talus slopes on light brown calcareous loams below limestone cliffs, while in the NT plants have been found at the base of gneiss hill. Both species are invasive in woodland and scrub areas of north-western NSW and in grazing areas of predominantly native species or areas sown to exotic grasses and herbs. (Johnson et al. 2009). “Hudson pear occurs in a variety of habitats including eucalypt woodlands, alluvial floodplains, shrublands and rocky outcrops” (Holtkamp 2006).
Decreases the probability of soil erosion.
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8. Reduce biomass?“Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010) “Based on visual observations made by the author around Lightning Ridge, C. rosea does not appear to require disturbance to become established and can invade relatively well-managed, uncleared and un-grazed areas of native vegetation. As such, it could become a significant problem not only on grazing land but also national parks of south-western Queensland” (Csurhes 2010).
Biomass may increase.
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9. Change fire regime?“A branched shrub cactus with a cylindrical trunk, most plants low growing, but some reaching 1.6m high and to 3m wide. Stem segments rope like, cylindrical, green to grey-green, up to 90cm long and 4cm wide (excluding spines). Spines 4-8 (up to 20 on older stems), white to silvery, up to 4.5cm long on outer segments” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010)
Greatly changes the intensity of fire risk.
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Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Floodplain Riparian Woodland (V); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“If allowed to spread, theses species could dominate understory vegetation over substantial areas of poplar box/mulga woodland, alluvial flood-plains, shrublands and rocky outcrops across south-west Queensland. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states” (Chuk 2010). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
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(b) medium value EVCEVC = Riverine Chenopod Woodland (D); CMA = Mallee; Bioregion = Murray Mallee;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“If allowed to spread, theses species could dominate understory vegetation over substantial areas of poplar box/mulga woodland, alluvial flood-plains, shrublands and rocky outcrops across south-west Queensland. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states” (Chuk 2010). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
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(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Woodland (LC); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Greater Grampians;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“If allowed to spread, theses species could dominate understory vegetation over substantial areas of poplar box/mulga woodland, alluvial flood-plains, shrublands and rocky outcrops across south-west Queensland. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states” (Chuk 2010). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant species within a strata/layer (or some dominant species within different layers).
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11. Impact on structure?“If allowed to spread, theses species could dominate understory vegetation over substantial areas of poplar box/mulga woodland, alluvial flood-plains, shrublands and rocky outcrops across south-west Queensland. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states” (Chuk 2010). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2009).
Minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on < 60% of the floral strata.
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12. Effect on threatened flora?“The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises and impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2008). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010).
No specific information on threatened flora.
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Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?“The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises and impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2008). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010).
“The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states. In several regions, where there were extensive infestations” (Chuk 2010).
No specific information on threatened fauna.
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14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?“The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available” (Johnson et al. 2009). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises and impact on the biodiversity of native fauna and flora” (Holtkamp 2008). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states. In several regions, where there were extensive infestations” (Chuk 2010).
Reduction in habitat for threatened species, leading to reduction in numbers of individuals, but NOT to local extinction.
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15. Benefits fauna?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines... The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Provides very little support to desirable species.
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16. Injurious to fauna?“The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Large spines or burrs dangerous to fauna. Toxic, and/or causes allergies.
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Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines. The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Provides minimal food for pest animals.
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18. Provides harbour?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines... The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. The spiny segments of both species injure native wildlife, for example kangaroos, and have been known to cause death of koalas and birds. Relatively dense infestations restrict access for native animals, displace native flora and may impact on biodiversity” (Johnson et al. 2009).
No harbour for pest species.
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Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines... The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Fragments of the detachable papery sheath that surrounds the spines often remain embedded after the spine is removed, causing infection. Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. If left unchecked, infestations have the potential to reduce production options available for agricultural enterprises” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises” (Holtkamp 2008). “Plants have shallow roots and are likely to absorb water that would otherwise be used by native plants and productive pastures” (Osmond 2006). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants” (Csurhes 2010).
Serious impacts on quantity (eg >20% reduction). Unviable to harvest crop/ stock.
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20. Impact quality?“It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises” (Holtkamp 2008). “One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines, which can cause human injury and economic loss. The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Fragments of the detachable papery sheath that surrounds the spines often remain embedded after the spine is removed, causing infection. Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. If left unchecked, infestations have the potential to reduce production options available for agricultural enterprises” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Plants have shallow roots and are likely to absorb water that would otherwise be used by native plants and productive pastures” (Osmond 2006). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants” (Csurhes 2010). “Segments and fruit of both species are easily detached from parent plants. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. [Also] attached to tyres and other parts of vehicles or machinery. Vegetative segments are moved by overland water flows and floodwaters” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Major impact on quality of produce (eg 5-20%).
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21. Affect land value?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines, which can cause human injury and economic loss. Minor human injury commonly results, particularly to opal miners, pastoralists, shooters and wild game harvesters, and to tourists. Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. If left unchecked, infestations have the potential to reduce production options available for agricultural enterprises and subsequent land values” (Johnson et al. 2009). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises” (Holtkamp 2008). “The survey showed that invasive cacti, in particular the Opuntioids (Opuntia and Cylindropuntia), pose real challenges to primary production and biodiversity at sites in all mainland states. In several regions, where there were extensive infestations, the cost of ongoing chemical control often exceeds the value of the land” (Chuk 2010). “At least $100,000 has been spent controlling Hudson pear in New South Wales. Landholders in the Lightning Ridge area are also spending thousands of dollars each year on control. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010).
Major significance > 10%.
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22. Change land use?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines, which can cause human injury and economic loss. Minor human injury commonly results, particularly to opal miners, pastoralists, shooters and wild game harvesters, and to tourists. Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. If left unchecked, infestations have the potential to reduce production options available for agricultural enterprises and subsequent land values” (Johnson et al. 2009). “Infestation of Hudson pear hinder mustering. Plants have shallow roots and are likely to absorb water that would otherwise be used by native plants and productive pastures” (Osmond 2006). “At least $100,000 has been spent controlling Hudson pear in New South Wales. Landholders in the Lightning Ridge area are also spending thousands of dollars each year on control. Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible and potentially reduce the land’s value” (Csurhes 2010). “It seriously degrades invaded land and ecosystems and has the potential to reduce the viability of agricultural enterprises” (Holtkamp 2008).
Major detrimental change and significant loss for agricultural usage (eg complete change to different ag use eg farm forestry.)
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23. Increase harvest costs?“One of the most significant problems with both C. rosea and .C tunicata is the large number of long sharp spines, which can cause human injury and economic loss. The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment. Fragments of the detachable papery sheath that surrounds the spines often remain embedded after the spine is removed, causing infection. Minor human injury commonly results, particularly to opal miners, pastoralists, shooters and wild game harvesters, and to tourists. Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock” (Johnson et al. 2009). “The spines can cause serious injury to humans, livestock and working animals such as horses and dogs and may present a severe impediment to mustering operations” (Holtkamp 2008). “Infestation of Hudson pear hinder mustering” (Osmond 2006). “Dense infestations can replace pasture plants, prevent stock movement, make on horse-back virtually impossible” (Csurhes 2010).
Major increase in time or labour, or machinery in harvesting.
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24. Disease host/vector?No information found
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Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Hudson pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground… New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Hotlkamp 2006). “Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Opportunistic germinator, can germinate or strike/ set root at any time whenever water is available.
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2. Establishment requirements?“Hudson pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground… New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Hotlkamp 2006). Both species are invasive in woodland and scrub areas… Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Can establish without additional factors.
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3. How much disturbance is required?“Based on visual observations made by the author around Lightning Ridge, C. rosea does not appear to require disturbance to become established and can invade relatively well-managed, uncleared and un-grazed areas of native vegetation. As such, it could become a significant problem not only on grazing land but also national parks of south-western Queensland” (Csurhes 2010).
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (eg. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops or in well-established pastures.
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Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“Hudson pear (Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb.) is an invasive cactus of Mexican origin” (Holtkamp 2008).
Other.
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5. Allelopathic properties?Not listed as allelopathic in Rice (1984), Csurhes (2010), AWC (2010), Osmond (2006), Johnson et al. (2009),
Chuk (2010), Biosecurity QLD (undated) and (Reitano and Reynolds 2010).
None.
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6. Tolerates herb pressure?“Biological agents have been released on C. rosea but do not appear to provide adequate control alone” (Csurhes 2010). “Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck), a species of cochineal insect introduced for C. imbricata, attacks C. rosea but is not particularly damaging… Livestock injury, for example to sheep, cattle and horses, is unfortunately common. These injuries and the time needed to address them result in economic loss. Infestations thus limit grazing close to these cacti, restricting the total grazing area available and presenting problems to both livestock and the animals used to muster livestock. If left unchecked, infestations have the potential to reduce production options available for agricultural enterprises and subsequent land values” (Johnson et al. 2009). Listed as a targeted weed species approved for biological control the Australian Weeds Committee in 2008 by NSW Dept. of Primary Industries (AWC 2010). Listed as a targeted species of biological control by Biosecurity South Australia (Reitano and Reynolds 2010).
Consumed but non-preferred or consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering /seed production under moderate herbivory pressure (where moderate = normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
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7. Normal growth rate?“Rapid growth of both species occurs after rainfall at warmer times of the year” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Moderately rapid growth that will equal competitive species of the same life form.
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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“Uprooted plants must be disposed of through burning or burning to avoid new infestations arising from this material… Burnt material requires checking for any regeneration…Found in areas of north-western NSW…with mean monthly maximum and minimum temperature ranges of 17-36C and 4-22C respectively. Cylindropuntia rosea and/or C. tunicata have established in far drier conditions in the NT, SA, WA and VIC… In north-western NSW, C. rosea is common on the lighter, stony, red earths, often found on slightly raised ridges off the surrounding riverine floodplains. The species also invades heaver and deeper grey clays of the floodplains… Vegetative segments are moved by overland water flows and floodwaters” (Johnson et al. 2009). “C. rosea prefers an arid to semi-arid, sub-tropical climate and can tolerate high temperatures during the day and freezing temperatures at night. At lightning Ridge, New South Wales, it occurs in a region that…has a mean monthly maximum of 17-36 and a minimum of 4-22C.” (Csurhes 2010).
Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, waterlogging, and salinity, and may be tolerant of another. Susceptible to at least one.
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Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“Hudson pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground … New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Holtkamp 2006). “Most fruit in Australia appear to be sterile. However, a specimen with viable seeds was recently found at Lightning Ridge, New South Wales (yet to be confirmed by herbarium)” (Csurhes 2010).
“The fruit containing seeds was found at Lightning Ridge by Dr Bob Chinnock of the SA Herbarium. I have subsequently also located this one, isolated plant. We don't know why this one produced seeds when all other Hudson pears seem not too. Bob took the fruit back to Adelaide in an effort to grow it out. He later reported that the seeds were sterile with no embryo development.”(Holtcamp pers comms 2011)
Both vegetative and sexual reproduction (vegetative reproduction may be via cultivation, but not propagation).
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10. Number of propagules produced?More than 100 propagule segments can be produced by the largest plants (Holtkamp pers comm. 2011). “Hudson pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground … New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Holtkamp 2006).
“If allowed to spread, theses species could dominate understory vegetation over substantial areas of poplar box/mulga woodland, alluvial flood-plains, shrublands and rocky outcrops across south-west Queensland… Dense infestations can replace pasture plants” (Csurhes 2010).
50-1000
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11. Propagule longevity?“Hudson pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground … New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Holtkamp 2006). “Most fruit in Australia appear to be sterile. However, a specimen with viable seeds was recently found at Lightning Ridge, New South Wales (yet to be confirmed by herbarium)” (Csurhes 2010).
“The fruit containing seeds was found at Lightning Ridge by Dr Bob Chinnock of the SA Herbarium. I have subsequently also located this one, isolated plant. We don't know why this one produced seeds when all other Hudson pears seem not too. Bob took the fruit back to Adelaide in an effort to grow it out. He later reported that the seeds were sterile with no embryo development.” (Holtcamp pers comms 2011)
Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5 years, or vegetatively reproduces.
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12. Reproductive period?An individual plant can live for many years, some would appear to be well over 10 years of age (Holtkamp pers comm. 2011). “The outer layer of the spines separates into a paper-like, detachable sheath during the first year of development… Hudsonn pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground… New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Holtkamp 2006).
“Segments and fruit of both species are easily detached from parent plants. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. [Also] attached to tyres and other parts of vehicles or machinery… The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment.” (Johnson et al. 2009).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for 10 years or more.
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13. Time to reproductive maturity?“Segments and fruit of both species are easily detached from parent plants. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. [Also] attached to tyres and other parts of vehicles or machinery… The tips of these spines have barbs that aid spine attachment.” (Johnson et al. 2009). “The outer layer of the spines separates into a paper-like, detachable sheath during the first year of development… Hudsonn pear spreads by movement of segments and fruit that root where they come in contact with the ground… New plants are capable of growing from segments of all sizes” (Holtkamp 2006).
Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules, or vegetative propagules become separate individuals, in under a year.
h
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?“Segments and fruit of both species are easily detached from parent plants. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. [Also] attached to tyres and other parts of vehicles or machinery… Vegetative segments are moved by overland water flows and floodwaters” (Johnson et al. 2009). “The presence of C. rossea on flood plains is particularly worrying as a major flood event could result in a significant increase in its distribution including movement into the Darling River system” (Holtkamp 2008).
Propagules spread by wind, water, attachment (humans, animals, or vehicles), or accidental human dispersal (ploughing).
mh
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15. How far do they disperse?“Segments and fruit of both species are easily detached from parent plants. Fragments are moved through adhering to animals including livestock e.g. sheep, cattle and horses, native species e.g. kangaroos and koalas, feral animals e.g. rabbits, and domestic or working animals, e.g. cats and dogs. [Also] attached to tyres and other parts of vehicles or machinery… Vegetative segments are moved by overland water flows and floodwaters” (Johnson et al. 2009). “The presence of C. rossea on flood plains is particularly worrying as a major flood event could result in a significant increase in its distribution including movement into the Darling River system” (Holtkamp 2008).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
h
h


References

AWC (Australian Weeds Committee) (2010) Target Species for Biological Control. Available at: http://www.weeds.org.au/management.htm (verified 02/08/2011).

Biosecurity QLD (Undated) Pest Alert- Hudson pear. Available: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Hudson-Pear-Pest-Alert.pdf (verified 05/07/2011).

Chuk, M. (2010) Invasive cacti- a threat to the rangelands of Australia. In: Proceedings of the 16th Biennial Conference of the Australian Rangeland Society, Bourke (Eds D.J. Eldridge and C. Waters) Australian Rangeland Society, Perth.

Csurhes, S. (2010) Weed Risk Assessment: Hudson pear, Cylindropuntia rosea and C. tunicata (In development). The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. Available at: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Hudson-Pear-Risk-Assessment.pdf (verified 05/07/2011).

Holtkamp, R.H. (2006) Prime Facts: Hudson pear. NSW Department of Primary Industries. Available at: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/96140/hudson-pear.pdf (verified 05/07/2011).

Holtkamp, R.H. (2008) Prospects for Hudson pear biological control in Australia. Sixteenth Australian Weeds Conference Proceedings.

Holtkamp, R.H. (2011) Personal communication. Strategy Leader Invasive Species, Biosecurity Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Tamworth Agricultural Institute.

Johnson, S.B., Hosking, J.R., Chinnock, R.J. and Holtkamp, R.H. (2009) The biology of Australian Weeds 53. Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. And Cylindropuntia tunicata (Lehm.) F.M. Knuth. Plant Protection Quaterly. 24(2): 42-49.

Osmond, R. (2006) Weed Alert: Hudson pear, (Cylindropuntia rosea). New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. Available at: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/pests-weeds/weeds/profiles/hudson-pear (05/07/2011).

Reitano, R. and Reynolds, T. (2010) Biological control of weeds, Biosecurity SA. Available at: http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/biosecuritysa/nrm_biosecurity/weeds/biological_control_of_weeds (29/07/2011).

Rice EL. (1984) Allelopathy. 2nd Edition. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando.

Global present distribution data references

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 04/07/2011).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 04/07/2011).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2011) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 04/07/2011).

The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) (2005) The International Plant Names Index- search. Available at http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do (verified 01/08/2011).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2011) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 04/07/2011).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2011) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 04/07/2011).


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