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Glory flower (Clerodendrum bungei)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Clerodendrum bungei Steud.
Common name(s):

glory flower

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

"From China and the Himalayas” (Burnie et al. 1998). “It prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position, and is drought and frost tender” (Bodkin 1986). Clerodendrums “need year-round water” (Macoboy 1986). Temperate species (Webb and Garnock-Jones 1988). Altitude to 1100-2500m (Flora of China undated). “Waste places, hillsides and damp shady roadsides to 2300 metres. Mixed forests on mountain slopes and along the sides of roads, below 2500 metres…Requires well drained soil …Plants are hardy to about -10C, they can be cut to the ground in sever winters but usually resprout from the base…Can most certainly grow in shade, and it grows very well there” (PFAF 1996-2008). Sandy soil…This plant that self started in our wooded area behind our home…Mine is not doing well in the severe drought” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). C. bungei varietal denomination ‘Pink diamond’ can tolerate temperature from about -5 to 40C (US PP 2004).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; horticulture perennial

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Swampy scrub; freshwater wetland (permanent); lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; wet forest; rainforest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland

Colours indicate possibility of Clerodendrum bungei infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of clerodendrum bungei
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Major impediment to access waterways or machinery. Significant works required to provide reasonable access, tracks closed or impassable.
H
ML
2. Reduce tourism?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m (Bodkin 1986).
Some recreational uses affected.
MH
ML
3. Injurious to people?Clerodendrums are “unarmed shrubs” (Webb et al. 1988). Not described as toxic. (Covacevich et al. 1987; Everist 1974; Forsyth 1968; Shepherd 2004; Connor 1977; Cooper and Johnson 1984).
No effect, no prickles, no injuries.
L
ML
4. Damage to cultural sites?“The invasiveness of this plant still amazes me as I find sprouts past concrete barriers into my neighbours [sic] driveway” (Dave’s Garden (2000-2010). “Wandering roots” (Thomas 1992).
May cause moderate structural effect.
MH
ML
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?“This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil” (Burnie et al. 1998). “A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position” (Bodkin 1986). Clerodendrums “need year-round water” (Macoboy 1986). Also not described as aquatic in Webb et al. (1988), Flora of China (undated) or US PP (2004).
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?“This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil” (Burnie et al. 1998). “A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position” (Bodkin 1986). Clerodendrums “need year-round water” (Macoboy 1986). Also not described as aquatic in Webb et al. (1988), Flora of China (undated) or US PP (2004).
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?“Deciduous shrub... A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position... Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986). “This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil...The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998).
As a deciduous shrub, it may leave soils in sunny positions unprotected.
Moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
ML
ML
8. Reduce biomass?“A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position... Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986). “This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil...The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998).
May fill a gap in vegetation in sunny positions.
Biomass may increase.
L
ML
9. Change fire regime?“Deciduous shrub... A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position... Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986). “This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil...The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998).
May fill a gap in vegetation in sunny positions and add leaf litter being deciduous.
Moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire risk.
MH
ML
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Riparian Forest/Swampy Riparian Woodland (V); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
L CLIMATE potential.
“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
ML
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Herb-rich Foothill Forest (D); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
ML
(c) low value EVCEVC = Damp Forest (LC); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Highlands- Northern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
ML
11. Impact on structure?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on < 60% of the floral strata.
MH
ML
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
May reduce habitat for fauna species, leading to reduction in numbers of individuals, but not to local extinction.
MH
ML
15. Benefits fauna?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986). “Beautiful and fragrant flowers that attract many humming birds, bees and butterflies” (Jenny’s Garden, undated).
May provide some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
ML
16. Injurious to fauna?Clerodendrums are “unarmed shrubs” (Webb et al. 1988). Not described as toxic. (Covacevich et al. 1987; Everist 1974; Forsyth 1968; Shepherd 2004; Connor 1977; Cooper and Johnson 1984).
No effect.
L
M
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Clerodendrums produce a “fruit, a shiny berry sitting at the centre of the calyx” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Beautiful and fragrant flowers that attract many humming birds, bees and butterflies” (Jenny’s Garden, undated). “This plant is resistant to deer…My goats won’t eat it…I hear it’s virtually animal proof” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010).
Unknown if pest animals eat the berries.
M
L
18. Provides harbour?“The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
Capacity to provide harbour and permanent warrens for foxes and rabbits throughout the year.
H
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?No information found.
M
L
20. Impact quality?No information found.
M
L
21. Affect land value?No information found.
M
L
22. Change land use?No information found.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?No information found.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?No information found.
M
L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?“Germination can be erratic but usually takes place within 20-60 days at 20C” (PFAF 1996-2008).
May require natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
ML
2. Establishment requirements?“Deciduous shrub... A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position” (Bodkin 1986).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
ML
3. How much disturbance is required?“This plant that self started in our wooded area behind our home. It is taking over literally” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). “Can most certainly grow in shade, and it grows very well there” (PFAF 1996-2008).
May establish in highly disturbed natural ecosystem (e.g. roadsides, wildlife corridors, or areas which have a greater impact by humans such as tourist areas or campsites) or in overgrazed pastures/poorly growing or patchy grows.
ML
ML
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?“It has a strongly rhizomatous system” (Webb et al.1988). “Suckering shrub” (Burnie et al. 1997).
Geophyte.
ML
M
5. Allelopathic properties?No information found.
M
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“This plant is resistant to deer…My goats won’t eat it” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010).
May be favoured by heavy grazing pressure as not eaten by animals/insects and not under a biological control program in Australia/New Zealand.
H
ML
7. Normal growth rate?Shrub growing to 2m by 2m at a medium rate” (PFAF 1996-2008).
Moderately rapid growth that will equal competitive species of the same life form.
MH
ML
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?“This genus of over 400 species ranges through the world’s tropics and warmer climates…They all appreciate a sunny position, though sheltered from strong wind and the hottest summer sun, and deep, moist, fertile soil…From China and the Himalayas… Suckering shrub” (Burnie et al. 1997). “A native of China, it prefers rich, well-drained soils in a protected, partially shaded position, and is drought and frost tender” (Bodkin 1986). Clerodendrums “need year-round water” (Macoboy 1986). C. bungei varietal denomination ‘Pink diamond’ can tolerate temperature from about -5 to 40C (US PP 2004). “It has a strongly rhizomatous system” (Webb et al. 1988). Mine is not doing well in the severe drought” (Dave’s Garden 2000-2010). Plants are hardy to about -10C” (PFAF 1996-2008).
May be highly tolerant to frost and fire as it is rhizomatous. May have some tolerance to waterlogging. Not tolerant to drought and unlikely to tolerate salt but no information was found.
Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, waterlogging, and salinity, and may be tolerant of another. Susceptible to at least one.
MH
ML
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system “It has a strongly rhizomatous system” (Webb et al. 1988). Clerodendrums produce a “fruit, a shiny berry sitting at the centre of the calyx... Suckering shrub” (Burnie et al. 1997).
Both vegetative and sexual reproduction (vegetative reproduction may be via cultivation, but not propagation).
H
M
10. Number of propagules produced?Clerodendrums produce a “fruit, a shiny berry sitting at the centre of the calyx... The stems will arch 6ft (1.8m) unless cut to the ground each spring…It will spread rapidly if not contained or controlled” (Burnie et al. 1997). C. bungei varietal denomination ‘Pink diamond’ produces about 350 flowers and flower buds per compound cyme (US PP 2004). “Grows to a height of 3m with a spread of 2m” (Bodkin 1986).
A shrub of this size is likely to produce numerous flowerheads (compound cyme). 6 flowerheads x 350 flowers/buds= 2100 flowers.
May produce above 2000 propagules.
H
ML
11. Propagule longevity?“Germination can be erratic but usually takes place within 20-60 days at 20C” (PFAF 1996-2008). “It has a strongly rhizomatous system” (Webb et al. 1988).
Greater that 25% of seeds survive 5 years, or vegetatively reproduces.
L
ML
12. Reproductive period?No information found.
M
L
13. Time to reproductive maturity?No information found.
M
L
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Clerodendrums produce a “fruit, a shiny berry sitting at the centre of the calyx” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Beautiful and fragrant flowers that attract many humming birds, bees and butterflies” (Jenny’s Garden, undated).
May be bird dispersed.
H
ML
15. How far do they disperse?Clerodendrums produce a “fruit, a shiny berry sitting at the centre of the calyx” (Burnie et al. 1998). “Beautiful and fragrant flowers that attract many humming birds, bees and butterflies” (Jenny’s Garden, undated).
May be bird dispersed.
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
ML


References

Bodkin F. (1986) Encyclopaedia Botanica: The Essential Reference Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia. Angus & Robertson.

Burnie G, Forrester S, Grieg D, Guest S, Harmony M, Hobley S, Hackson G, Lavarack P, Ledgett M, McDonald R, Macoboy S, Molyneux B, Moodie D, Moore J, Newman D, North T, Pienaar K, Purdy G, Silk J, Ryan S, Schien G. (1998) Botanica; 2nd Ed. Random House, Milsons Point.

Connor H.E. (1977) The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington.

Cooper MR and Johnson AW. (1984) Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.

Covacevich J, Davie P and Pearn J. (Ed's.) (1987) Toxic Plants and Animals: A Guide For Australia. Queensland Museum, Quorum Books, Brisbane.

Dave’s Garden (2000-2010) Plantfiles: Rose Glory Bower, Cashmere Bouquet, Mexicali Rose, Mexican Hydrangea. Clrodendrum bungei. Available at:
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/1253 (verified 16/04/2010).

Everist SL. (1974) Poisonous Plants of Australia. Angus & Robertson Publishers.

Flora of China (undated) Clerodendrum bungei. Available at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200019317 (verified 31/03/2010).

Forsyth AA. (1968) British Poisonous Plants. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.

Jenny’s Garden (undated) Clerodendrum bungei. Available at: http://jennysgarden.com/Landscaping/Clerodendrum_Bungei_pink_diamond--Rose_Glory_Bower-Mexican_Hydrangea-Mexicali-rose-Cashmere_Bouquet.htm (verified 16/04/2010).

Macoboy S. (1986) What Flower Is That? 2nd Edn. Lansdowne Press, Sydney, Aukland, London, New York.

PFAF (Plants for a Future) (1996-2008) Clerodendrum bungei - Steud. Glory Flower. Available at: http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Clerodendrum+bungei (verified 16/04/2010).

Shepherd RCH. (2004) Pretty But Poisonous. Plants Poisonous to People, An Illustrated Guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson. Meredith, Australia.

Thomas GS. (1992) Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Sagapress Inc. / Timber Press Inc. Oregon.

US PP (United States Plant Patent) (2004) United States Plant Patent for Clerodendrum plant named ‘Pink diamond’. US PP14,601 P2. Available at:
http://www.google.com/patents?id=7bQSAAAAEBAJ&printsec=abstract&zoom=4&source=gbs_overview_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false (verified 16/04/2010).

Webb CJ, Sykes WR and Garnock-Jones PJ. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4. Botany Division, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Zealand.



Global present distribution data references

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2010) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 19/01/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2010) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 20/08/2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2007) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19/01/2010).


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