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Galenia (Galenia secunda)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Galenia secunda (L.f.) Sond.
Common name(s):

galenia
map showing the present distribution of galenia secunda
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

“G. secunda also appeared in other coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…Used as forage in Chile…The study was carried out in the province of Cadiz (Southern Spain), which is the only Spanish region where Galenia [secunda] has been found. The area has a Mediterranean climate, with a wet season from October to April (mean daily temperature: 14C, average rainfall for the last 30 years: 507 mm and a dry season from May to September (80 mm rainfall, mean daily temperature: 23C)” Occurs on sandy-silty plains on limestone, limestone rocky crests, sandy limestone soils, gravel sandy soils with karoo vegetation, sandy soils beside the river, inland and coastal…Among habitats invaded, most locations are associated with human disturbed environments due to recent coastal development (urbanisation, roads, railways, etc)…However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans…and occasionally pinewoods…or scrubs (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Identified as being suitable for saline-water irrigated gardens, golf courses, roadside plantings, windbreaks and the like…[is] Galenia secunda” (Choudr-Allah et al. 1996). G. secunda is listed as being a salt resistant ornamental for the Dead Sea shore (Choukr-Allah 1997). “Open places on sand or gravel in the coastal belt and at the margins of the karroo” (Rycroft 1956). Locally abundant on sand, gravel or rocks by the sea” (Adamson and Salter 1950).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; riparian; high altitude shrubland/woodland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; saline wetland; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummockgrass mallee; lowan mallee

Colours indicate possibility of Galenia secunda infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of galenia secunda
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated). “G. secunda is a prostrate perennial… G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%)” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
High nuisance value. People and/or vehicles access with difficulty.
MH
M
2. Reduce tourism?20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated). “G. secunda is a prostrate perennial… G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%)” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
Some recreational uses affected.
MH
M
3. Injurious to people?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Growing parts are covered by greyish, shining, hollow hairs which are narrowly attached near the base” (Richardson et al. 2006). 20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated).
Not described as being injurious.
No effect, no prickles, no injuries.
L
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). 20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated). “G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%)” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
Moderate visual effect.
ML
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?G. secunda also appeared in other coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes”. Occurs on sandy-silty plains on limestone, limestone rocky crests, sandy limestone soils, gravel sandy soils with karoo vegetation, sandy soils beside the river, inland and coastal… However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans…and occasionally pinewoods…or scrubs (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Identified as being suitable for saline-water irrigated gardens, golf courses, roadside plantings, windbreaks and the like…[is] Galenia secunda” (Choudr-Allah et al. 1996). G. secunda is listed as being a salt resistant ornamental for the Dead Sea shore (Choukr-Allah 1997).
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?G. secunda also appeared in other coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes”. Occurs on sandy-silty plains on limestone, limestone rocky crests, sandy limestone soils, gravel sandy soils with karoo vegetation, sandy soils beside the river, inland and coastal… However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans…and occasionally pinewoods…or scrubs (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Identified as being suitable for saline-water irrigated gardens, golf courses, roadside plantings, windbreaks and the like…[is] Galenia secunda” (Choudr-Allah et al. 1996). G. secunda is listed as being a salt resistant ornamental for the Dead Sea shore (Choukr-Allah 1997).
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
Low probability of large scale soil movement; or decreases the probability of soil erosion.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?No information found.
M
L
9. Change fire regime?No information found.
M
L
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Semi-arid Woodland (E); CMA = North Central; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina;
VH CLIMATE potential.
G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all spp. within a strata/layer.
H
MH
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Grassy Woodland (D); CMA = East Gippsland; Bioregion = East Gippsland Uplands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all spp. within a strata/layer.
H
MH
(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Dry Forest(LC); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Goldfields;
VH CLIMATE potential.
G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Monoculture within a specific layer; displaces all spp. within a strata/layer.
H
MH
11. Impact on structure?G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Major effects on all layers. Forms monoculture; no other strata/layers present.
H
MH
12. Effect on threatened flora?No information found.
M
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?No information found.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial… Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). 20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated). “Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010).
May provide some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
M
16. Injurious to fauna?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Growing parts are covered by greyish, shining, hollow hairs which are narrowly attached near the base” (Richardson et al. 2006). 20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated).
Not described as being injurious.
No effect.
L
ML
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?“Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
May provide forage for rabbits.
Supplies food serious pest (eg. rabbits and foxes), but at low levels (eg. foliage).
MH
ML
18. Provides harbour?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial…G. secunda forms dense mono-specific mats…The distribution survey revealed that one-third of the invaded sites underwent the formation of dense mono-specific mats (coverage >50%), which may involve the displacement of native flora” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). 20-60cm tall (Flora of North America, undated).
Capacity to harbour rabbits or foxes at low densities or as overnight cover.
MH
ML
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?“Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010). “Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
No reports indicate yield is affected.
Little or negligible affect on quantity of yield.
L
M
20. Impact quality?“Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010). “Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Serious impacts on quality (eg >20% reduction). – Produce rejected for sale or export.
H
ML
21. Affect land value?“Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010). “Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Little or none.
L
ML
22. Change land use?“Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010). “Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Little or no change.
L
ML
23. Increase harvest costs?“Blanket weed- which can contaminate honey with a ‘revolting’ taste rendering it inedible…Honey contaminated by blanket weed flowers tastes revolting and could ruin the Victorian honey industry” (Duff 2010). “Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Little or none.
L
ML
24. Disease host/vector?No information found.
M
L


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?No information found.
M
L
2. Establishment requirements?“Among habitats invaded, most locations are associated with human-disturbed environments due to recent coastal development (urbanizations, roads, railways, etc)…However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans…and occasionally pinewoods…or scrubs (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Open places on sand or gravel in the coastal belt and at the margins of the karroo” (Rycroft1 956).
Requires more specific requirements to establish (eg. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?“Among habitats invaded, most locations are associated with human-disturbed environments due to recent coastal development (urbanizations, roads, railways, etc)…However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans…and occasionally pinewoods…or scrubs (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Open places on sand or gravel in the coastal belt and at the margins of the karroo” (Rycroft 1956).
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (eg. wetlands, riparian, riverine, grasslands, open woodlands); in vigorously growing crops.
MH


MH
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Galenia species are “prostrate or semi-prostrate perennial herbs, semi-woody at base” (George et al. 1984). G. secunda is a prostrate perennial” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
Other.
L
MH
5. Allelopathic properties?Not described as allelopathic in Benjamin (undated), Choukr-Allah (1997), Choudr-Allah et al. (1996), Day (1988), Duff (2010), Flora of North America (undated), Garcia-de-Lomas (2009), George et al. (1984), Launert (1978), Richardson et al. (2006) or Rycroft1 (1956).
None.
L
L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?“Capsules with 4-5 small (1 mm) seeds per capsule…Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Consumed but non-preferred or consumed but recovers quickly; capable of flowering /seed production under moderate herbivory pressure (where moderate = normal; not overstocking or heavy grazing).
MH
MH
7. Normal growth rate?“Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “G. secunda on the other hand would have entailed a lower per unit area establishment cost as they can be sown into the pasture and their volunteering characteristics enable them to spread rapidly especially under grazing conditions” (Benjamin, undated).
Rapid growth rate that will exceed most other species of the same life form.
H
MH
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?G. secunda also appeared in other coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes… The area has a Mediterranean climate, with a wet season from October to April (mean daily temperature: 14C, average rainfall for the last 30 years: 507 mm and a dry season from May to September (80 mm rainfall, mean daily temperature: 23C… However, a number of the invaded areas belong to coastal natural habitats such as sand dunes…saline soils beside saltpans” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “Identified as being suitable for saline-water irrigated gardens, golf courses, roadside plantings, windbreaks and the like…[is] Galenia secunda” (Choudr-Allah et al. 1996). G. secunda is listed as being a salt resistant ornamental for the Dead Sea shore (Choukr-Allah 1997). “The genus Galenia is confined to southern Africa where it is especially characteristic of the drier regions of the west and south-west” (Rycroft 1956).
Highly tolerant to salinity. May be tolerant to drought. Unknown to other stresses.
Tolerant to at least two and susceptible to at least one.
ML
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive system“Capsules with 4-5 small (1 mm) seeds per capsule…Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “A prostrate many-stemmed…Flowers on short lateral branches, solitary or in groups of 2-5 on short branchlets” (Launert 1978).
Unknown if this species is self or cross pollinated or both. In worst case scenario it may be both.
Sexual (self and cross-pollination).
ML
ML
10. Number of propagules produced?“Capsules with 4-5 small (1 mm) seeds per capsule…Used as forage in Chile because of its high yields and growth rates” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “A prostrate many-stemmed…Flowers on short lateral branches, solitary or in groups of 2-5 on short branchlets” (Launert 1978).
If flowers are 5 per group x 5 seeds per capsule= 25 seeds per flower group.
25 seeds per flower group x many-stemmed of 10 branchlets= 250 seeds per plant.
50-1000.
ML
ML
11. Propagule longevity?No information found.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?G. secunda is a prostrate perennial” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3–10 years.
MH
ML
13. Time to reproductive maturity?No information found.
M
L
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?G. secunda was more often found near roads, because roads facilitate seed dispersal” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “The weed Galenia secunda has been a serious problem. Introduced to the valley by earth-moving machinery, it develops rapidly over widely disturbed areas providing considerable competition for sown species in rehabilitation” (Day 1988).
Propagules spread by wind, water, attachment (humans, animals, or vehicles), or accidental human dispersal (ploughing).
MH
MH
15. How far do they disperse?G. secunda was more often found near roads, because roads facilitate seed dispersal” (Garcia-de-Lomas 2009). “The weed Galenia secunda has been a serious problem. Introduced to the valley by earth-moving machinery, it develops rapidly over widely disturbed areas providing considerable competition for sown species in rehabilitation” (Day 1988).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
MH


References

Benjamin R.W. (undated) The use of forage shrubs in the Norte Chico Region of Chile. Agricultural Research Organization, Israel. Available at:
http://www.ilri.org/InfoServ/Webpub/fulldocs/BROWSE_IN_AFRICA/Chapter29.htm (verified 22/06/2010).

Choukr-Allah R. (1997) The potential of salt-tolerant plants for utilisation of saline water. Options Mediterraneennes. A/No. 31.

Choudr-Allah R, Malcolm C.V, and Hamdy A. (1996) Halophytes and biosaline agriculture. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.

Day D.G. (1988) Evolutionary or fragmented environmental policy making? Coal, power, and agriculture in the Hunter Valley, Australia. Environmental Management. 12: 3, 297-310.

Duff X. (2010) Apiarists wage war over weed. The Weekly Times.

Flora of North America (undated) Galenia secunda. Available at: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=242415128 (verified 18/06/2010).

Garcia-de-Lomas (2009) Incipient invasion of Galenia secunda Sond. (Aizoaceae) in Southern Spain. Biol. Invasions. 11: 467-472.

George A.S, Briggs B.G, Barlow B, Eichler H, Pedly L, Ross J.H, Symon D, Wilson P.G, Bridgewater P. and McCusker A. (1984) Flora of Australia, Volume 4: Phytolaccaeae to Chenopodiaceae. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Launert E. (Ed.) (1978) Flora Zambesiaca: Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Rhodesia and Botswana. Volume 4. Managing Committee on behalf of the contributors to Flora Zambesica, Africa.

Richardson FJ, Richardson RG and Shepherd RCH. (2006) Weeds of the South-east. An Identification Guide for Australia. RG & FJ Richardson. Meredith.

Rycroft H.B. (1956) The Journal of South African Botany. Volume XXIL. The Trustees of The National Botanic Gardens of South Africa; Kirstenbosch, Newlands, Cape Province.



Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 25/06/2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 05/05/2010).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 25/06/2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 05/05/2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2010) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 05/05/2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2000) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 05/05/2010).

Walsh N and Stajsic V. (2007) A Census of the Vascular Plants of Victoria. 8th Edn. Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.


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