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Digger pine (Pinus sabiniana)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Pinus sabiniana Douglas ex D.Don
Common name(s):

digger pine
map showing the present distribution of pinus sabiniana
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Thrives in a light well-drained sandy soil or gravelly loam, succeeds in heavy clay soils, and dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade.150-
2000 m (PFAF 1996-2000) .High drought tolerance, intolerant to salinity and shade. Minimum temperature 12 (USDA 2009). Very drought tolerant (LasPilitas undated). Dry foothills woodland communities (FED.US)


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; wet forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Pinus sabiniana infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of pinus sabiniana
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Mature Pinus sabiniana often have multiple trunks (FEIS 2009). Low nuisance value. Impedes individual access.
ML
M
2. Reduce tourism?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Grows in dry foothill woodland communities and on exposed, dry, rocky slopes. (Powers undated). Dry rocky hillsides, woodlands, canopy (PFAF 1997-2000). Minor effects to aesthetics.
ML
M
3. Injurious to people?‘The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people’ (PFAF 1997-2000). Non-toxic (USDA 2009). Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues.
ML
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Dry rocky hillsides, woodlands, canopy (PFAF 1997-2000). Grows on exposed, dry, rocky slopes. Dry foothill woodland communities (Powers undated). Moderate visual effect.
ML
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Not known to be a riparian weed, or an aquatic weed, therefore unlikely to impact water flows. Little or negligible impact to water flows.
L
ML
6. Impact water quality?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Not known to be a riparian weed, or an aquatic weed, therefore unlikely to impact water quality. No noticeable effect on dissolved O2 or light levels.
L
ML
7. Increase soil erosion?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Pinus sabiniana has been planted on a limited basis for erosion control; It will grow in xeric sites where establishment of other species is difficult (Powers undated). Low probability of large scale soil movement.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003) Biomass may increase.
L
M
9. Change fire regime?‘Moderate severity fire kills substantial numbers of Pinus sabiniana (Powers undated). Low fire tolerance (USDA 2009). Impacts to fire regime are unknown.
M
L
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Damp Heathland (E/V); CMA = Wimmera; Bioregion = Greater Grampians; VH CLIMATE potential. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy soil or gravelly loam, succeeds in heavy clay soils, and dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade. 150-2000 m (PFAF) .High drought tolerance, intolerant to salinity and shade. Minimum temperature 12 (USDA 2009). Dry foothills woodland communities (Powers undated) Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer/strata.
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Herb Rich Foothill Forest (D); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands; VH CLIMATE potential. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy soil or gravelly loam, succeeds in heavy clay soils, and dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade. 150-2000 m (PFAF 1997-2000) .High drought tolerance, intolerant to salinity and shade. Minimum temperature 12 (USDA 2009). Dry foothills woodland communities (Powers undated) Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer/strata.
ML
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Heathy Dry Forest (LC); CMA = North Central; Bioregion = Goldfields; VH CLIMATE potential. Thrives in a light well-drained sandy soil or gravelly loam, succeeds in heavy clay soils, and dislikes poorly drained moorland soils and shade. 150-2000 m (PFAF 1997-2000). High drought tolerance, intolerant to salinity and shade. Minimum temperature 12 (USDA 2009). Dry foothills woodland communities (Powers undated) Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse/scattered infestations.
L
H
11. Impact on structure?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Grows on exposed, dry, rocky slopes (Powers undated) Minor effect on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only effecting one of the strata.
L
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Effects on threatened flora are uncertain.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height. Numerous birds feed on the seeds of grey pine rabbits, deer and other wildlife may feed on leaves stems and roots (Anderson 2003). Effects on threatened fauna are uncertain.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height. Numerous birds feed on the seeds of grey pine rabbits, deer and other wildlife may feed on leaves stems and roots (Anderson 2003). Minor effects on fauna species, minor reduction in habitat/food/shelter.
ML
MH
15. Benefits fauna?Numerous birds feed on the seeds of grey pine rabbits, deer and other wildlife may feed on leaves stems and roots (Anderson 2003). May provide some assistance, in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
MH
16. Injurious to fauna?Non-toxic (USDA 2009). No effect.
L
MH
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Numerous birds feed on the seeds of grey pine rabbits, deer and other wildlife may feed on leaves stems and roots (Anderson 2003). Supplies food for serious pests, but at low densities.
MH
MH
18. Provides harbour?Evergreen tree to 30 m in height (Anderson 2003). Doesn’t provide harbour for major pest species, may provide harbour for minor pest species.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?No evidence to suggest Pinus sabiniana is invasive to agriculture.
M
L
20. Impact quality?No evidence to suggest Pinus sabiniana is invasive to agriculture.
M
L
21. Affect land value?No evidence to suggest Pinus sabiniana is invasive to agriculture.
M
L
22. Change land use?No evidence to suggest Pinus sabiniana is invasive to agriculture.
M
L
23. Increase harvest costs?No evidence to suggest Pinus sabiniana is invasive to agriculture.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?‘All species of pine are believed to be at risk of infestation of the sirex wasp Sirex noctillo (Madden, 1974; Madden, 1981; NYSDEC 2007). Provides host to minor pest or disease.
MH
MH


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Soils supporting stable populations of digger pine characteristically have low levels of available moisture (Powers undated). Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
M
2. Establishment requirements?Intolerant of shade (USDA 2009). Will grow in full or part sun (LasPilitas undated). Seedlings establish best on bare mineral soil under partial shade (Powers undated). Requires more specific requirements to establish.
ML
M
3. How much disturbance is required?Dry rocky hillsides, woodlands, canopy (PFAF 1997-2000). Grows on exposed, dry, rocky slopes; dry foothill woodland communities (Powers undated). Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed natural ecosystems.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Evergreen tree (PFAF 1997-2000) Other.
L
M
5. Allelopathic properties?Leaf secretions inhibit germination of seeds, therefore reducing the amount of plants that can grow under this tree (PFAF 1997-2000). Minor properties.
ML
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?The large seeds are edible (Kirsten 2004). Low palatability to grazing and browsing animals (USDA 2009). Consumed but not preferred.
MH
M
7. Normal growth rate?Slow growth rate (USDA 2009). ‘This conifer grows fast, to 45 ft in 15 years (LasPilitas undated). Widely conflicting evidence.
M
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?High drought tolerance, intolerant to salinity and shade. Minimum temperature 12 (USDA 2009). Very drought tolerant (Kirsten 2004). 150-2000 m asl. (PFAF 1997-2000). Soils supporting populations of Pinus sabiniana characteristically have low levels of available moisture. Few conifer species can match this pines ability to persist under such xeric sterile conditions (Powers undated) - Tolerant of at least one, susceptible to at least two.
L
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemPropagated by seed (USDA 2009). Does not reproduce vegetatively (Powers undated). - Sexual (either cross or self pollination).
L
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?High fruit/seed abundance (USDA 2009). 1000-2000
ML
M
11. Propagule longevity?Seed bank stored seeds remain viable for up to five years (Powers undated). - Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5 years.
L
MH
12. Reproductive period?Perennial (USDA 2009). - Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
MH
MH
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Pinus sabiniana produces seeds at 10-25 years of age (Powers undated). - Greater than 5 years to reach sexual maturity.
L
MH
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Seed is shed whilst cones are still attached to the tree (PFAF 1997-2000) Wind, usually the primary distributor of seeds for most species, has less influence on digger pine seeds…birds disseminate seeds; gravity also aids distribution of seeds. Because of their shape and weight, may roll considerable distances on steep hillsides. Seeds are also buoyant, cones reaching running water may be transported considerable distances, in one instance, cones were found on a stream bank within 13 kilometres of the ocean and 40 km downstream of the nearest known source (Powers undated). - Bird dispersed seeds.
H
MH
15. How far do they disperse?Seed is shed whilst cones are still attached to the tree (PFAF 1997-2000).Wind, usually the primary distributor of seeds for most species, has less influence on digger pine seeds…birds disseminate seeds; gravity also aids distribution of seeds. Because of their shape and weight, may roll considerable distances on steep hillsides. Seeds are also buoyant, cones reaching running water may be transported considerable distances, in one instance, cones were found on a stream bank within 13 kilometres of the ocean and 40 km downstream of the nearest known source (Powers undated). - Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater than one kilometre.
H
MH


References

Anderson MK (2003) Plant Guide, Gray Pine. Available at http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_pisa2.pdf (verified 25 August 2009).

FIES (2009). Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pinsab/all.html (verified 25 August 2009).

http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500953
http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=102678

Kirsten K (2004) Flora Volume 2. Briza Pretoria.

Las Pilitas (undated). Available at http://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/pinus-sabiniana (verified 17 June 2009).

Nearctica (undated). Available at http://www.nearctica.com/trees/conifer/pinus/Psabin.htm (verified 17 June 2009).

PFAF (1997-2000) Plants For A Future Database. Available at http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Pinus+sabiniana (verified 17 June 2009).

Powers RF (undated) http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_1/pinus/sabiniana.htm (verified 25 August 2009).

USDA (2009) Plant Conservation Characteristics. Available at http://plants.usda.gov/java/charProfile?symbol=PISA2 (verified 17 June 2009).

VTech (2009) Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. Available at
http://www.cnr.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=233 (verified 17 June 2009).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2009) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 26 November 2009).

Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cgi-bin/apni (verified 26 November 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2009) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 26 November 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 26 November 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 26 November 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2009) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 26 November 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 26/03/2009).


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