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Coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench
Common name(s):

coralberry
map showing the present distribution of symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Coralberry occurred in forest type where climate was continental. Mean annual temperature 15C; ranged from average daily min. of −4.3C to an average daily max. of 34C. Average annual precip. was 831 mm (Horncastle et al. 2004). Does well with other shade tolerant plants. Can take dry shade or irrigated (Williamson County Native Plant Society 2007). Thin rocky woodlands, woodland openings, woodland borders, powerline clearances in wooded areas, thickets, and limestone glades (Hilty 2009). Medium tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions (Gardenguides 1997−2010). Prefers sandy, loamy and clay soils; can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils; prefers acid, neutral and alkaline soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure and atmospheric pollution. Does well in sun or shade. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40C. Does not fruit freely in Britain, except after a hot summer (Plants Future 1996−2008). The dominant species of this palustrine scrub-shrub wetland include the herbaceous species Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Futuregen 2007). Found at an altitude of 0 to 1,473 meters (0 to 4,833 feet) (ZipcodeZoo 2004−2009).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Forestry; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
freshwater wetland (permanent); treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; rainforest; high altitude shrubland/woodland; high altitude wetland; alpine treeless; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; western plains woodland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; freshwater wetland (ephemeral)

Colours indicate possibility of Symphoricarpos orbiculatus infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of symphoricarpos orbiculatus
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Shrub’s habit of forming dense thickets makes it useful for shrub borders (Maryland DNR 2006).
Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to overrun surrounding plants (Faucon 2007).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Major impediment to machinery. Significant works to provide reasonable access.
H
M
2. Reduce tourism?Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Brightly coloured red fruits make this shrub a showstopper (Maryland DNR 2006).
Coralberry is valued for its showy coral red fruits that persist through most of the winter, attracting birds and wildlife. The nectar of the tiny flowers provides food for bees and hummingbirds while the leaves are a food source for butterfly larvae (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Although activities such as bushwalking may be affected, the berry fruits of Coralberry may attract birds which may in turn attract birdwatching and other naturalist activities.
Some recreational uses affected.
MH
M
3. Injurious to people?No mention of injurious or toxic qualities of the plant in literature cited.
L
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to be overrun (Faucon 2007).
This woody shrub has shallow, spreading roots that form large colonies (Defelice 1991).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Major structural damage to site and/or obliteration of heritage/cultural feature.
H
H
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Although Symphoricarpos orbiculatus is known to occur in the shrubby understory of gallery forest (Rosiere undated), it is considered a terrestrial species and therefore unlikely to cause disturbance to water flow and/or waterbeds.
Little or negligible effect on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality? No reference to noticeable affect dissolved O2 or light levels was found in the literature search for Symphoricarpos orbiculatus.
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?Used as erosion control on slopes (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Useful in bank stabilisation and has been planted along highways to control bank erosion (Maryland DNR 2006).
Decreases probability of soil erosion.
L
M
8. Reduce biomass?S. orbiculatus is a woody shrub that occurs in grass pastures (Defelice 1991).
Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Biomass may increase.
L
H
9. Change fire regime?Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
It is therefore likely that biomass (fuel load) will be increased by an infestation of Coralberry.
Moderate change to both frequency and intensity of fire.
MH
M
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Heathy Woodland (V); CMA = Glenelg Hopkins; Bioregion = Victorian Volcanic Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Shrub’s habit of forming dense thickets makes it useful for shrub borders (Maryland DNR 2006).
Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to overrun surrounding plants (Faucon 2007).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
M
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Box Ironbark Forest (D); CMA = North Central; Bioregion = Goldfields;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Shrub’s habit of forming dense thickets makes it useful for shrub borders (Maryland DNR 2006).
Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to overrun surrounding plants (Faucon 2007).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
M
(c) low value EVCEVC = Shrubby Dry Forest (LC); CMA = North East; Bioregion = Highlands – Northern Fall;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Shrub’s habit of forming dense thickets makes it useful for shrub borders (Maryland DNR 2006).
Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to overrun surrounding plants (Faucon 2007).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Major displacement of some dominant spp. within a strata/layer (or some dominant spp. within different layers).
MH
M
11. Impact on structure?Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Forms impenetrable thickets up to 2−5' tall in the wild (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Shrub’s habit of forming dense thickets makes it useful for shrub borders (Maryland DNR 2006).
Root suckers and runners should be removed so as not to overrun surrounding plants (Faucon 2007).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies and spreads by rooting at the nodes where it touches the ground (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Minor effect on >60% of the layers or major effect on < 60% of the floral strata.
MH
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Impact on threatened flora has not yet been determined.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Impact on threatened fauna has not yet been determined.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Impact on non-threatened fauna has not yet been determined.
M
L
15. Benefits fauna?Coralberry is a favourite food plant of the White-Tailed Deer (Hilty 2009), therefore is potential food for deer and other pest/non-pest fauna in Victoria.
Provides some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
M
16. Injurious to fauna?No mention of injurious or toxic qualities of the plant in literature cited.
L
M
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Coralberry is a favourite food plant of the White-Tailed Deer (Hilty 2009)
Coralberry is valued for its showy coral red fruits that persist through most of the winter attracting birds and wildlife (Kemper Centre 2001−2010)
Therefore Coralberry is potential food for deer and/or other pest fauna in Victoria.
Supplies food for >1 major pest spp. at crucial times of the year.
H
MH
18. Provides harbour?Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Coralberry forms extensive colonies (LBJ Wildflower 2009).
Shrub has a habit of forming dense thickets (Maryland DNR 2006).
Due to the dense branching habit and abundant leaves, this shrub provides good cover for wildlife (Hilty 2009).
Capacity to provide harbour and permanent warrens for foxes and rabbits throughout the year.
H
MH
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?This woody shrub has shallow, spreading roots that form extensive colonies capable of seriously reducing forage production in grass pastures (Defelice 1991).
Coralberry is a dense shrub which typically occurs in open woods, fields and pastures [in North America]. Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Tolerates wide range of soils (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Grows on a variety of sites from dry and rocky to moist and rich (Maryland DNR 2006).
The potential for Coralberry to establish in a range of habitats/vegetation types that are principally used for grazing infers that yield may be negatively affected in these environments.
Serious impact on quantity of yield.
H
H
20. Impact quality?Impact on agricultural quality has not yet been determined.
M
L
21. Affect land value?This woody shrub has shallow, spreading roots that form extensive colonies capable of seriously reducing forage production in grass pastures (Defelice 1991).
Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Tolerates wide range of soils (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Decreases in land value <10%.
M
M
22. Change land use?This woody shrub has shallow, spreading roots that form extensive colonies capable of seriously reducing forage production in grass pastures (Defelice 1991).
If pasture is the principle vegetation type, then a change of landuse may be necessary.
Downgrading of the priority of landuse.
MH
H
23. Increase harvest costs?No reference to increase in harvest costs was found in the literature search for Symphoricarpos orbiculatus.
M
L
24. Disease host/vector?The flowers attract bees, wasps, and flies primarily. Apathargelia symphoricarpi (aphid) and Thrips winnemanae (thrips) suck juices from the undersides of the leaves (Hilty 2009).
No serious insect or disease problems. Anthracnose, leaf spot and powdery mildew will sometimes occur (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Provides host to minor pests or diseases.
M
M


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?One hundred percent of the seeds incubated in a simulated summer, autumn, winter, spring sequence of temperature regimes germinated, whereas none of those subjected to a winter, spring sequence did so. That is, cold stratification is effective in breaking dormancy only after seeds first are exposed to a period of warm temperatures (Hidayati et al. 2001).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances for germination.
MH
H
2. Establishment requirements?Can be grown in full sun to part shade (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Rivina humilis does well with other shade tolerant plants such as Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Note that all of these plants can take dry shade or can be irrigated (Williamson County Native Plant Society 2007).
Coralberry can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade (Plants Future 1996−2008).
Can establish under moderate canopy/litter cover.
MH
ML
3. How much disturbance is required?Habitats include thin rocky woodlands, woodland openings, woodland borders, areas along woodland paths, powerline clearances in wooded areas, thickets, and limestone glades. This shrub is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, from which it occasionally escapes (Hilty 2009).
Establishes in relatively intact or only minor disturbed ecosystems.
MH
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Deciduous shrub, open with arching branches, 0.6-1.5 m tall, 1.2-2.4 m spread (Faucon 1998−2005).
Coralberry is a dense, suckering, deciduous shrub which typically grows 2-5' tall with arching stems (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Other (shrub).
L
M
5. Allelopathic properties?Not toxic to nearby plants (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
ML
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Coralberry is a favourite food plant of the White-Tailed Deer, and it is often heavily browsed (Hilty 2009).
Consumed and recovers; capable of vegetative propagule production.
ML
M
7. Normal growth rate?Coralberry has a moderate growth rate (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Growth rate equal to plants of same life form.
M
M
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Coralberry has medium tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
The woody shrub (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench) progressively increased its depth of water uptake during the growing season as water became less available, and showed a high degree of responsiveness of water uptake depth to changes in precipitation patterns (Asbjornsen et al. 2008).
Maybe tolerant to one stress, susceptible to at least two.
L
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemSpreads by root suckers and runners (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Can be propagated by bare root, container, seed (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Both vegetative and sexual reproduction.
H
M
10. Number of propagules produced?Flowers in [abundant] small terminal clusters, in mid-summer. Each drupe contains 2 nutlets with 1 seed per nutlet (Faucon 1998−2005).
Fruit/seed abundance high (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Number of propagules 50-1000.
ML
ML
11. Propagule longevity?No reference to propagule longevity in Symphoricarpos orbiculatus could be located.
M
L
12. Reproductive period?Spreads by root suckers and runners (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
Coralberry has a moderate life span (≥ 20 years) relative to most other plant species (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Produces viable propagules for 10 years or more or forms self-sustaining monocultures.
H
M
13. Time to reproductive maturity?Coralberry has a moderate growth rate (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Spreads by root suckers and runners (Kemper Centre 2001−2010).
2-5 years to reach sexual maturity or for vegetative propagules to become separate individuals.
ML
ML
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?The berries are eaten primarily by Robins and also by the Bobwhite. Coralberry is a favourite food plant of the White-Tailed Deer (Hilty 2009).
Coralberries are food for: Turkey, Ruffed Grouse, Bobwhite, Ring-necked Pheasant, Ruby–throated Hummingbird (Nectar), Brown Thrasher, American Robin, Wood Thrush, Hermit Thrush, Cedar Waxwing, Warbling Vireo, Cardinal, Evening Grosbeak, Purple Finch, and Pine Grosbeak (Maryland DNR 2006).
Coralberry is easily found in nurseries, garden stores and other plant dealers and distributors (Gardenguides 1997−2010).
Bird dispersed seeds or has edible fruit that is readily eaten by highly mobile animals.
H
M
15. How far do they disperse?The berries are eaten primarily by Robins and also by the Bobwhite. Coralberry is a favourite food plant of the White-Tailed Deer. This shrub is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, from which it occasionally escapes (Hilty 2009).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
M


References

Asbjornsen H, Shepherd G, Helmers M and Mora G. (2008) Seasonal patterns in depth of water uptake under contrasting annual and perennial systems in the Corn Belt Region of the Midwestern U.S. Plant and Soil. The Hague 308 (1–2): 69.

Defelice MS. (1991) Buckbush (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus) control in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) pastures. Weed Technology 5: 841–844.

Faucon P. (1998−2005) Desert Tropicals.com, Coral Berry page. Available at http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Caprifoliaceae/Symphoricarpos_orbiculatus.html (verified Jan 2010).

FutureGen (2007) FutureGen EIS, Matoon Wetlands and Floodplains, Wetlands in Utility Corridors. Available at
http://gc.energy.gov/NEPA/nepa_documents/docs/deis/eis0394D/vol2/Mattoonsite48.pdf (verified Feb 2010).

Gardenguides (1997–2010) Coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus) page. Available at http://www.gardenguides.com/taxonomy/coralberry-symphoricarpos-orbiculatus/ (verified Jan 2010).

Hidayati SN, Baskin JM and Baskin CC. (2001) Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements for seeds of Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae). American Journal of Botany 88 (8): 1444–1445.

Hilty J. (2009) Illinois Wildflowers, Wildflowers of Illinois in Savannahs and Thickets, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus page. Available at
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/savanna/plants/coralberry.htm (verified Jan 2010).

Horncastle VJ, Hellgren EC, Mayer EM, Engel DM and Leslie DM (2004) Differential consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by avian and mammalian guilds: implications for tree invasion. Available at http://www.jstor.org/pss/3566718 (verified Feb 2010).

Kemper Centre for Home Gardening. (2001−2010) Missouri Botanical Garden, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus page.
Available at http://www.mobot.org/gardinghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=F730#lbl_culture (verified Jan 2010).

LBJ Wildflower (2009) The University of Texas at Austin, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus page. Available at http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=syor (verified Jan 2010)

Plants Future (1996−2008) Plants for a Future, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus page. Available at http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Symphoricarpos+orbiculatus (verified Jan 2010).

Rosiere RE. (undated) Miscellaneous Forest Types, Eastern or Southern Live Oak, Section 72. Available at
http://www.tarleton.edu/Departments/range/Woodlands%20and%20Forest/Miscellaneous/miscforest.html (verified Jan 2010).

Williamson County Chapter Native Plant Society. (2007) The Grapevine, Williamson County Chapter Native Plant Society Newsletter.
Available at http://www.npsot.org/WilliamsonCounty/Newsletters/Grapevine%20June%20July%202007%20issue.pdf (verified Jan 2010).

Maryland DNR (2006) Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Habichat Vol. 11 No. 2 Available at http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/habichat10.asp (verified Jan 2010).

ZipcodeZoo (2004−2009) Symphoricarpos orbiculatus page. Available at http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/S/Symphoricarpos_orbiculatus/ (verified Jan 2010).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 22 Mar 2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2010) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 19 Jan 2010).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2010) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 14 Jan 2010).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2010) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 19 Jan 2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19 Jan 2010).

United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench page. Available at
http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?keywordquery=Symphoricarpos+orbiculatus&mode=sciname&submit.x=16&submit.y=15 (verified 19 Jan 2010).


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