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Victorian Resources Online

Bordered watsonia (Watsonia marginata)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Watsonia marginata (L.f.) Ker Gawl
Common name(s):

bordered watsonia

This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria
Habitat:

Sandy and granitic soils (Pacific Bulb Society 2009). Often on damper sites in the mountains (Manning and Paterson Jones 2008) Occurs in winter-rainfall regions of South Africa… it is virtually restricted to areas of complete summer drought. Can be found growing from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains, in stony clay soils and sometimes in seasonally marshy or temporary seep areas in sandy soils (Notten 2001). Along tracks edges and road verges. Amongst tall trees, medium trees, low lying areas, from sea level to middle elevations; growing in disturbed natural vegetation and gardens (Spooner et al. 2008).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation; water

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forestlowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; riparian; wet forest; granitic hillslopes; western plains woodland; basalt grassland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; riverine woodland/forest; freshwater
wetland (ephemeral);

Colours indicate possibility of Watsonia marginata infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of watsonia marginata
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Minimal or negligible impact (i.e. can go anywhere).
L
M
2. Reduce tourism?Watsonia marginata is a very pretty plant, with attractive foliage and gorgeous spikes of cup shaped pink or white flowers (Notten 2001). No injurious characteristics; no evidence that this species forms monocultures; Tourism unlikely to be negatively impacted.
- Weeds not obvious to the average visitor.
L
M
3. Injurious to people?No evidence of injurious characteristics.
-None.
L
M
4. Damage to cultural sites?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is a very pretty plant, with attractive foliage and gorgeous spikes of cup shaped pink or white flowers (Notten 2001). No evidence that this species forms monocultures.
- Little or negligible effects on aesthetics or structure of site.
L
M
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). A terrestrial weed, not known to grow in riparian zones, therefore unlikely to impact on water flow.
- Little or negligible impact on water flow.
L
M
6. Impact water quality?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). A terrestrial weed, not known to grow in riparian zones, therefore unlikely to impact on water quality.
- No noticeable impacts to dissolved O2 or light levels,
L
M
7. Increase soil erosion?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). “This Watsonia requires full sun” “…it is virtually restricted to areas of complete summer drought” (Notten 2001).
- Moderate probability of large scale soil movement.
ML
M
8. Reduce biomass?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). “This Watsonia requires full sun” “…it is virtually restricted to areas of complete summer drought” (Notten 2001).
Not enough information.
M
L
9. Change fire regime?“Generally survive fire, prolific flowering and seed set follow summer fire” (Brown and Bettink 2009).
Alterations to natural fire regime are unknown.
M
L
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Riverine Escarpment Scrub (E); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands
VH CLIMATE potential.
Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer/strata.
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Wet Heathland (D); CMA = West Gippsland; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Very little displacement of any indigenous species. Sparse and scattered infestations.
L
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Red Swale Mallee (LC); CMA = Mallee; Bioregion = Lowan Mallee;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer/strata.
ML
H
11. Impact on structure?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Minor or negligible impact on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
L
M
12. Effect on threatened flora?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Size of this plant may provide some shelter for pest species.
- Impacts on threatened flora in Victoria are unknown.
MH
L
Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Size of this plant may provide some shelter for pest species.
- Impacts on threatened fauna are unknown.
MH
L
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Size of this plant may provide some shelter for pest species.
- No fauna affected due to fauna not co-existing within weed area or strata.
L
M
15. Benefits fauna?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Size of this plant may provide some shelter for pest species.
- Provides some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
MH
M
16. Injurious to fauna?No evidence of injurious characteristics.
- None.
L
L
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?No information.
M
L
18. Provides harbour?Grows up to 1.5 metres tall. Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Size of this plant may provide some shelter for pest species.
- Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest species, but may provide for minor pests.
ML
M
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is not a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to greatly impact yields.
- Little or negligible impact on quantity of yield.
L
M
20. Impact quality?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is not a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to greatly impact quality of produce.
- Little or negligible impact on quality of yield.
L
M
21. Affect land value?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is not a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to affect land value.
- Little or none.
L
M
22. Change land use?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is not a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to cause a change to land use.
- Little or no change.
L
M
23. Increase harvest costs?Habitats include “amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008). Watsonia marginata is not a weed of agriculture, therefore unlikely to greatly impact harvesting costs.
- Little or none.
L
M
24. Disease host/vector?Brunt et al (1996 onwards) do not list Watsonia marginata as a disease or viral host.
- Little or no host.
L
M



Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Germination May-July (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Requires natural seasonal disturbances for germination.
MH
MH
2. Establishment requirements?Germination May-July (Brown and Bettink 2009). “This Watsonia requires full sun” “…it is virtually restricted to areas of complete summer drought” (Notten 2001). “Amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space, access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?“Amongst tall trees, medium trees; growing in disturbed natural vegetation (open roadsides, edges of tracks) and in gardens” (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Establishes in highly disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. roadsides, wildlife corridors, or areas which have a greater impact by humans such as tourist areas.
ML
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Cormous herb (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Geophyte.
ML
M
5. Allelopathic properties?None described in Rice (1984).
L
M
6. Tolerates herb pressure?Unknown.
M
L
7. Normal growth rate?Unknown.
M
L
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?Occupying low lying areas from sea level to middle elevations (Spooner et al. 2008). “…it is virtually restricted to areas of complete summer drought” “Sometimes in seasonally marshy or temporary seep areas in sandy soils” “It is tender to frost and hardy to winter temperatures to -1C (Notten 2001). Drought tolerant, suitable for xeriscaping (Dave’s Garden)
- Tolerant to at least two, susceptible to at least one.
ML
M
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemReproduction: offsets, seed (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Vegetative and sexual reproduction.
H
MH
10. Number of propagules produced?“Although Watsonia marginata does produce offsets (daughter bulbs) it does not produce them as abundantly as other species of Watsonia (Notten 2001).
Unknown.
M
L
11. Propagule longevity?“Seed bank persistence medium, 1-5 years (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Greater than 25% of seeds survive five years, or vegetative reproduction.
L
M
12. Reproductive period?Cormous perennial herb (Spooner et al. 2008).
- Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
MH
M
13. Time to reproductive maturity?“Time to first flowering 2-3 years (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Two to five years to reach sexual maturity, or for vegetative propagules to become separate individuals.
ML
M
Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?Dispersal: water, soil wind (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Propagules are dispersed by wind, water or by accidental human dispersal (as soil contaminant).
MH
M
15. How far do they disperse?Dispersal: water, soil wind (Brown and Bettink 2009).
- Few propagules will disperse greater than one kilometre but many will reach 200-1000 metres.
MH
M


References

Brown K and Bettink K (2009) Watsonia marginata in FloraBase The Flora of Western Australia Online. Available at http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/1566 (verified 29 April 2009).

Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.' Available at http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ (verified 28 April 2009).

Calflora (2008) available at http://www.calflora.org/ (verified 29 April 2009).

Dave’s Garden, Plantfiles Watsonia marginata available online at http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/65254/ (verified 29 April 2009).

Manning J, Paterson-Jones C (2008) Field Guide to Fynbos. Published by Struik.

Notten A (2001) Watsonia marginata (L.f.) Ker Gawl. Kirstenbosch National Botanic Garden. Available online at http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantwxyz/watsoniamargin.htm (verified 29 April 2009).

Pacific Bulb Society (2009) Watsonia. Available at http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Watsonia (verified 29 April 2009).

Spooner A, Carpenter J, Smith G, Spence K (2007). Watsonia marginata in FloraBase The Flora of Western Australia Online. Available at
http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/1566 (verified 29 April 2009).

Walsh N and Entwisle T. (Eds.) (1994) Flora of Victoria: Volume 2. Ferns and Allied Plants, Conifers and Monocotyledons. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2008) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 26 May 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 26 May 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 26 May 2009).

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2009) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 26 May 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 26 May 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 26 May 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2009) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 26 May 2009).


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