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Beach gladiolus (Gladiolus gueinzii)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Gladiolus gueinzii Kunze
Common name(s):

beach gladiolus

Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999). Grows on coastal sand dunes at and above the high tide mark in the southern Cape where it occurs in both the winter and the summer rainfall areas (Pacific Bulb Society 2010). Grows as a pioneer on fore dunes; between the Macleay R. and Currarong. Native of S Afr. (PlantNET 2010).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:


Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; saline wetland

Colours indicate possibility of Gladiolus gueinzii infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
map showing the potential distribution of gladiolus gueinzii
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Minimal impact.
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H
2. Reduce tourism?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Weeds not obvious to the ‘average’ visitor.
L
H
3. Injurious to people?Clinical signs of Gladiolus or Iris species exposure include salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, and ulcers and haemorrhage of the stomach and small intestine (Lieske 2002).
Mildly toxic, may cause some physiological issues.
ML
H
4. Damage to cultural sites?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Little or negligible effect on aesthetics or structure of site.
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H
Abiotic
5. Impact flow?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or negligible affect on water flow.
L
H
6. Impact water quality?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Unlikely due to occurring on pioneer dunes.
No noticeable effect on dissolved 02 or light levels.
L
H
7. Increase soil erosion?Gladiolus gueinzii is also unusual in its habitat, growing on sandy beaches and dunes at and above the tidal high water mark (Goldblatt and Manning 1998).
Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Decreases the probability of soil erosion.
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H
8. Reduce biomass?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Biomass may increase.
L
H
9. Change fire regime?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length (Heyligers 1999).
Small or negligible effect on fire risk.
L
H
Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Coastal Banksia Woodland (V); CMA =West Gippsland; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer.
ML
H
(b) medium value EVCEVC = Coastal Saltmarsh (D); CMA =East Gippsland; Bioregion =East Gippsland Lowlands;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer.
ML
H
(c) low value EVCEVC = Coastal Dune Scrub/Coastal Dune Grassland (LC); CMA = West Gippsland; Bioregion = Gippsland Plain;
VH CLIMATE potential.
Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one strata/layer.
ML
H
11. Impact on structure?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredunes (Heyligers 1999).
Minor or negligible effect on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
L
H
12. Effect on threatened flora?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length. Hence the plants are rather inconspicuous amongst the similarly grey-green Spinifex sericeus (Poaceae) vegetation of the foredune (Heyligers 1999).
Minor/negligible effects on any Bioregional Priority or VROT species.
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Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Minor effects on threatened species; minor hazard.
ML
H
14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length … Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Minor effects on fauna species; minor hazard.
ML
H
15. Benefits fauna?Clinical signs of Gladiolus or Iris species exposure include salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea,
anorexia, and ulcers and haemorrhage of the stomach and small intestine (Lieske 2002).
Provides very little support to desirable species.
H
H
16. Injurious to fauna?Clinical signs of Gladiolus or Iris species exposure include salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea,
anorexia, and ulcers and haemorrhage of the stomach and small intestine (Lieske 2002).
Mildly toxic, may cause fauna to lose condition.
ML
H
Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Clinical signs of Gladiolus or Iris species exposure include salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea,
anorexia, and ulcers and haemorrhage of the stomach and small intestine (Lieske 2002).
Provides minimal food for pest animals.
L
H
18. Provides harbour?Gladiolus gueinzii is a small gladiolus with narrow, rather glaucous leaves, which are at best 60 cm long and not uncommonly about half that length (Heyligers 1999).
No harbour for pest species.
L
H
Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or negligible affect on quantity of yield.
L
H
20. Impact quality?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or negligible affect on quality of yield.
L
H
21. Affect land value?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or none.
L
H
22. Change land use?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or no change
L
H
23. Increase harvest costs?Gladiolus gueinzii is more common on foredunes with a pioneer vegetation (Heyligers 1999).
Little or none.
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24. Disease host/vector?Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and bean yellow mosaic virus are the most prevalent viruses in gladiolus fields in Israel (Aly et al. 1986).
Provides host to minor (or common) pests, or diseases.
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H


Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?Growing from seeds is not difficult for species in this genus. It is said that South African species require temperature under 20C to germinate successfully but Bill Richardson found that temperature fluctuation from -2C (28F) to nearly 20C (68F) during the day does not have a huge effect on germination (Pacific Bulb Society 2010).
Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
MH
M
2. Establishment requirements?It grows in coarse sand at and above the high tide mark along the southern African coast form Cape Agulhas to near Durban (Goldblatt and Manning 1998).
Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space or bare ground with access to light and direct rainfall).
ML
MH
3. How much disturbance is required?Grows as a pioneer on fore dunes (PlantNET 2010).
Establishes in healthy and undisturbed natural ecosystems.
H
M
Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Plants grow from corms, which may be located 30 or 40cm, or even deeper, under the surface. These corms are about 20–30 mm across and somewhat less in height. New corms develop on the top of older ones and thus three generations of corms may be found together, while at their base a mass of dark-brown tunic remnants indicates the demise of previous corms (Heyliger 1999).
Geophyte.
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H
5. Allelopathic properties?No information found.
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L
6. Tolerates herb pressure?No information found.
M
L
7. Normal growth rate?No information found.
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L
8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?It grows in coarse sand at and above the high tide mark along the southern African coast form Cape Agulhas to near Durban (Goldblatt and Manning 1998).
Highly tolerant of at least two of drought, frost, fire, waterlogging, and salinity, and may be tolerant of another. Susceptible to at least one.
MH
MH
Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemGoldblatt and Manning (1998) report that Gladiolus gueinzii is self-compatible and autogamous, which is unusual in the genus. The main flowering season is from October till December, when some plants may produce a second generation of flowers on a short branch from the base of the inflorescence or on new stems … Plants grow from corms, which may be located 30 or 40cm, or even deeper, under the surface. These corms are about 20–30 mm across and somewhat less in height. New corms develop on the top of older ones and thus three generations of corms may be found together, while at their base a mass of dark-brown tunic remnants indicates the demise of previous corms … With commonly only one or a few flowering stems per plant, seed production is in the order of 100 to 400 seeds per plant per year (Heyliger 1999).
Both vegetative and sexual reproduction (vegetative reproduction may be via cultivation, but not propagation).
H
H
10. Number of propagules produced?As cormels are easily dislodged, their number per corm or per plant is not easily assessed, but from a count of stolon remnants and judging from the numbers of cormels found during digging out a clump of plants, 16 cormels per corm, or 35 per plant are likely to be minimum estimates … With commonly only one or a few flowering stems per plant, seed production is in the order of 100 to 400 seeds per plant per year (Heyliger 1999).
50-1000 propogules.
ML
H
11. Propagule longevity?It would appear that water dispersal of Gladiolus gueinzii seed can only be of local significance and hence, it may be merely of theoretical interest that sunken seed remains viable for more than a year … After 28 months in sea water viability of cormels had greatly declined: only one out of five ‘peeled’ cormels sprouted after about five months, and none of the cormels with intact tunics (Heyliger 1999).
Greater than 25% of seeds survive 5 years, or vegetatively reproduces.
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12. Reproductive period?These corms are about 20–30 mm across and somewhat less in height. New corms develop on the top of older ones and thus three generations of corms may be found together, while at their base a mass of dark-brown tunic remnants indicates the demise of previous corms (Heyliger 1999).
Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3–10 years.
MH
H
13. Time to reproductive maturity?No information found.
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?As cormels are easily dislodged, their number per corm or per plant is not easily assessed, but from a count of stolon remnants and judging from the numbers of cormels found during digging out a clump of plants, 16 cormels per corm, or 35 per plant are likely to be minimum estimates … With commonly only one or a few flowering stems per plant, seed production is in the order of 100 to 400 seeds per plant per year (Heyliger 1999).
Propagules spread by wind, water, attachment.
MH
H
15. How far do they disperse?After 28 months in sea water viability of cormels had greatly declined: only one out of five ‘peeled’ cormels sprouted after about five months, and none of the cormels with intact tunics (Heyliger 1999).
Very likely that at least one propagule will disperse greater one kilometre.
H
H


References

Aly R, Stein A, Levy S, Raccah B and Loebenstein G. Spread and control of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in gladiolus. Phytoparasitica. Volume 14, Number 3 / September

Goldblatt, P. & Manning, J.C. (1998) Gladiolus in Southern Africa. (Fernwood Press: Vlaberg).

Heyligers, P.C. (1999) Dispersal of exotic coastal dune plants, Gladiolus gueinzii and Trachyandra divaricata, in Australia. Cunninghamia 6: 315–329

Lieske C.A,(2002) Spring-blooming bulbs: A year-round problem. Vet Med 97(8): 580–588

Pacific Bulb Society (2010) Available at http://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/list.php (verified 27/05/2010)

PlantNET Home Page. (2010) Available at http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/ (verified 27/05/2010).


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2010) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at
http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 27/05/2010).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 27/05/2010).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2010) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 27/05/2010).

IPMS: Integrated Pest Management System (2006) Department of Primary Industries.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. (2010) Available at http://www.itis.gov/ (verified 27/05/2010).

National Biodiversity Network (2004) NBN Gateway, National Biodiversity Network, UK, Available at http://www.searchnbn.net/index_homepage/index.jsp (verified 27/05/2010)

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2010) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 27/05/2010).


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