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Victorian Resources Online

Baboon flower (Babiana stricta)

Present distribution


Scientific name:

Babiana stricta (Aiton) Ker Gawl.
Common name(s):

baboon flower

Map showing the present distribution of this weed.
Habitat:

‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). ‘Prefers well drained soils in open sunny positions’ (Indications of intolerance to water logging.) ‘Drought and frost tender’ (Bodkin 1986). ‘Prefers hot to warm climates’ (Urquhart 2004). According to Burnie et al. (1996) B. stricta will grow in humid subtropical, Mediterranean, temperate and semi-arid climate zones [In Australia]. Grows along roadsides, in wasteland and in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).. At -5C Babiana stricta plants died (i.e. cold sensitive) (Matsubara et al. 2003).


Potential distribution

Potential distribution produced from CLIMATE modelling refined by applying suitable landuse and vegetation type overlays with CMA boundaries

Map Overlays Used

Land Use:
Broadacre cropping; forestry; horticulture perennial; horticulture seasonal; pasture dryland; pasture irrigation

Ecological Vegetation Divisions
Coastal; heathland; grassy/heathy dry forest; freshwater wetland (permanent); treed swampy wetland; lowland forest; foothills forest; forby forest; damp forest; wet forest; granitic hillslopes; rocky outcrop shrubland; alluvial plains grassland; semi-arid woodland; alluvial plains woodland; ironbark/box; chenopod shrubland; chenopod mallee; hummock-grass mallee; lowan mallee; broombush whipstick

Colours indicate possibility of Babiana stricta infesting these areas.

In the non-coloured areas the plant is unlikely to establish as the climate, soil or landuse is not presently suitable.
maps
Red= Very highOrange = Medium
Yellow = HighGreen = Likely

Impact

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Social
1. Restrict human access?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996). ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). Grows along roadsides, in wasteland and in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993). ‘Prefers well drained soils in open sunny positions’ (Bodkin 1986). The size of this plant is unlikely to cause any major restrictions to access for both humans and vehicles.
- Low nuisance value, impedes individual access; unable to walk to waterways.
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2. Reduce tourism?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996). Grows along roadsides, in wasteland and in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993). ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). Spring flowering, flowers are shades of lilacs to deeper purple (Hussey et al. 1999). ‘Ideal for rock gardens’ (Sanbi 2009). B. stricta is a common ornamental (Lazarides et al. 1997). This species is unlikely to impact negatively on tourism, tourists and visitors may find colourful flowers attractive, and not notice it to be weedy.
- Minor effects to aesthetics.
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3. Injurious to people?No evidence of injurious characteristics.
- No effect, no prickles, no injuries.
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4. Damage to cultural sites?‘Ideal for rock gardens’ (Sanbi 2009). Grows along roadsides, in wasteland and in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993). ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). B. stricta does not form clumps or monocultures, and does not displace other species; flowers may be considered by some to be unsightly. It should not impact negatively on cultural sites.
- Potential moderate visual effect.
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Abiotic
5. Impact flow?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Forms dense clumps of flowering stems 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997). Neither a riparian nor aquatic weed, B. stricta is unlikely to impact upon flows.
- Little or negligible affect on water flow.
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6. Impact water quality?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Forms dense clumps of flowering stems 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997). Neither a riparian nor aquatic weed, B. stricta is unlikely to impact upon water quality.
- No noticeable effect on dissolved O2 or light levels.
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7. Increase soil erosion?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996).
Impact on soil erosion is unknown.
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8. Reduce biomass?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Forms dense clumps of flowering stems 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997). Not enough information, although unlikely to reduce biomass.
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9. Change fire regime?No information.
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Community Habitat
10. Impact on composition
(a) high value EVC
EVC = Plains Woodland (E); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Victorian Riverina; VH CLIMATE potential.
Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height. ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Grows in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).
- Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs and trees).
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(b) medium value EVCEVC = Herb Rich Foothills (D); CMA = Goulburn Broken; Bioregion = Central Victorian Uplands; VH CLIMATE potential.
Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height. ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Grows in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).
- Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs and trees).
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(c) low value EVCEVC = Loamy Sand Mallee (LC); CMA = Mallee; Bioregion = Lowan Mallee; VH CLIMATE potential.
Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height. ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Grows in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).
- Minor displacement of some dominant or indicator species within any one layer (e.g. ground cover, forbs, shrubs and trees).
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11. Impact on structure?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height. ‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999; Burnie 1996). Grows in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).
- Minor or negligible impact on <20% of the floral strata/layers present; usually only affecting one of the strata.
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12. Effect on threatened flora?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996).
- Impacts on threatened flora are not yet determined.
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Fauna
13. Effect on threatened fauna?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996).
- Impacts on threatened fauna are not yet determined.
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14. Effect on non-threatened fauna?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996). May provide some shelter for smaller species, and possibly a food source. Unlikely to negatively impact on non threatened species.
- No fauna affected due to fauna not co-existing within weed area or strata.
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15. Benefits fauna?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, growing to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996).
May provide nectar or other source of food, and some shelter. Baboons are known to consume corms of this species in native range of South Africa (Urquhart 2004).
- Potential to provide some assistance in either food or shelter to desirable species.
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16. Injurious to fauna?No injurious characteristics.
- No effect.
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Pest Animal
17. Food source to pests?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996). Baboons are known to consume corms of this species in native range of South Africa (Urquhart 2004).
- Provides minimal food for pest species.
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18. Provides harbor?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, grows to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996). At full height, B. stricta has potential to provide some shelter.
- Doesn’t provide harbour for serious pest species, but may provide harbour for minor pest species.
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Agriculture
19. Impact yield?Not a weed of agriculture.
- Little or negligible affect on quantity of yield.
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20. Impact quality?Not a weed of agriculture.
- Little or negligible affect on quality of yield.
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21. Affect land value?Not a weed of agriculture.
- Little or none.
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22. Change land use?Not a weed of agriculture.
- Little or no change.
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23. Increase harvest costs?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems, grows to 15-40cm in height (Hussey et al. 1997; Burnie 1996).
Not a weed of agriculture.
- Little or none.
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24. Disease host/vector?No evidence that B. stricta is a host or vector for diseases (Brunt et al. 1996)
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Invasive

QUESTION
COMMENTS
RATING
CONFIDENCE
Establishment
1. Germination requirements?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). ‘Prefers well drained soils in open sunny positions’ (Bodkin 1986). ‘Prefers hot to warm climates’ (Urquhart 2004). According to Burnie et al. (1996) B. stricta grows well in humid subtropical, Mediterranean, temperate and semi-arid climate zones [In Australia].
- Requires natural seasonal disturbances such as seasonal rainfall, spring/summer temperatures for germination.
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2. Establishment requirements?‘Abundant in clay based woodlands and wetlands’ (Hussey et al. 1999). ‘Prefers well drained soils in open sunny positions’ (Bodkin 1986). ‘Prefers hot to warm climates’ (Urquhart 2004). According to Burnie et al. (1996) B. stricta grows well in humid subtropical, Mediterranean, temperate and semi-arid climate zones [In Australia].
- Requires more specific requirements to establish (e.g. open space or bare ground, with access to light and direct rainfall)
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3. How much disturbance is required?Grows along roadsides, in wasteland and in sclerophyll forest (Harden 1993).
- Establishes in relatively intact OR only minor disturbed natural ecosystems (e.g. riparian, wetlands, grasslands etc.)
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Growth/Competitive
4. Life form?Herb (Harden 1993).
- Other.
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5. Allelopathic properties?No evidence to suggest allelopathic properties in this species (Rice 1984).
- None.
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6. Tolerates herb pressure?Not enough information.
- Unknown.
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7. Normal growth rate?Not enough information.
- Unknown.
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8. Stress tolerance to frost, drought, w/logg, sal. etc?‘Drought and frost tender’ (Bodkin 1983). At -5C Babiana stricta plants died (i.e. cold sensitive) (Matsubara et al. 2003). Dormant in summer (Sanbi 2009). Will grow in tropical and dry-subtropical climates as long as soils are well drained (Burnie et al. 1996); suggests intolerance to water logging.
- May be tolerant of one stress, susceptible to at least two (drought, frost).
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Reproduction
9. Reproductive systemPropagation is by seed or corms (Bodkin 1983).
- Both vegetative and sexual reproduction.
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10. Number of propagules produced?Forms dense clumps of flowering stems…each bearing up to 10 flowers (Hussey et al. 1997).
Not enough information.
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11. Propagule longevity?No information.
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12. Reproductive period?Perennial plant (Bodkin 1983) with annual leaves and flowers (Lazarides et al. 1997).
- Mature plant produces viable propagules for 3-10 years.
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13. Time to reproductive maturity?Perennial plant (Bodkin 1983) with annual leaves and flowers (Lazarides et al. 1997).
- Reaches maturity and produces viable propagules or vegetative propagules become separate individuals in under a year
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Dispersal
14. Number of mechanisms?No information.
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15. How far do they disperse?No information.
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References

Bodkin F. (1986) Encyclopaedia Botanica: The Essential Reference Guide to Native and Exotic Plants in Australia. Angus & Robertson.

Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.' Available at http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ (verified 17 March 2009).

Burnie G, Forrester S, Grieg D, Guest S, Harmony M, Hobley S, Hackson G, Lavarack P, Ledgett M, McDonald R, Macoboy S, Molyneux B, Moodie D, Moore J, Newman D, North T, Pienaar K, Purdy G, Silk J, Ryan S, Schien G (1997) Botanica Random House. Milsons Point, NSW.

Hussey BMJ, Keighery GJ, Cousens RD, Dodd J and Lloyd SG. (1997) Western Weeds. A Guide to the Weeds of Western Australia. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. Victoria Park.

Harden GJ. (1993) Flora of New South Wales. Volume 4. Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, UNSW Press.

Lazarides M, Cowley K, Hohnen P (1997) CSIRO Handbook of Australian Weeds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Matsubara K, Inamoto K, Doi M, Imanishi H (2003) Evaluation of cold hardiness of some geophytes for landscape planting.

Rice EL. (1984) Allelopathy. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando.

South African National Biodiversity Institute (Sanbi). (2009) Kirstenbosch Seed Catalogue. Capetown. www.sanbi.org/products/SeedCat06_3_Eroca_Herbaceous_Pelargoniums.pdf (verified 17 March 2009).

Urquhart P (2004) Growing bulbs; for every garden, style and season. Murdoch Books, Sydney.


Global present distribution data references

Australian National Herbarium (ANH) (2008) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, Australian National Herbarium, Centre for Plant Diversity and Research, Available at http://www.anbg.gov.au/avh/ (verified 19 February 2009).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (2008) Global biodiversity information facility, Available at http://www.gbif.org/ (verified 19 February 2009).

Missouri Botanical Gardens (MBG) (2009) w3TROPICOS, Missouri Botanical Gardens Database, Available at http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html (verified 19 February 2009).

Department of the Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth of Australia). (1993 – On-going) Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) http://www.cpbr.gov.au/apni/index.html (verified 19 February 2009).

United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. Taxonomy Query. (2008) Available at http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl (verified 19 February 2009).

Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne. (2003) Census of Vascular Plants of Victoria. Available at http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/research_and_conservation/plant_information/viclist (verified 19 February 2009).

Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) (2006) Flora information system [CD-ROM], Biodiversity and Natural Resources Section, Viridans Pty Ltd, Bentleigh.

EIS: Environmental Information System (2006) Parks Victoria.

IPMS: Integrated Pest Management System (2006) Department of Primary Industries.


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