As mentioned earlier, Campaspe Plains Station was described as being 'sylvan' in 1854 (see European Settlement). The onset of ringbarking (e.g. Abbott 1880, Powell 1976, Stubbs 1998), clearing, grubbing and scrubbing commenced at different times for the various allotments studied in the Costerfield area and was augmented by the activities of sleeper hewers. The clearing and grubbing from files held in the Public Record Office Victoria. There were no data to determine the rate of deforestation.
Prior to a severe storm adjacent to the present study area, in which the wind
"...almost reached the force of a cycline ... some stumps and trees ... were burning on the site of the recent bushfire, which appeared to be rather a risk of danber, but on returning the fires were noticed to be effectively doused" (The McIvor Times and Rodney Advertiser, 22 February 1894).