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Site GN10

Location: Dookie
General Landscape Description: Upper slope of hillslope (2 degree slope) with a NNW aspect.Australian Soil Classification: Haplic, Eutrophic, Red DERMOSOL
Soil Mapping Unit: Dookie loam (Downes, 1949). Soil Management Unit (Briggs 1995): 'Heavy Red'.
Occurrence: Sloping ground downslope from hill country, especially around Mt. Major. This soil is found in areas generally higher up the slope than the 'Dookie Red' soils and is generally heavier in texture.
Site Description: Paddock with wheat stubble.
Native Vegetation: The native vegetation on these soils ranges from Yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) and White cypress pine/Murray pine (Callitris columellaris), to Sheoak (Casuarina stricta) and Grey box (Eucalyptus microcarpa).

Photo: Site GN10 Landscape
Site GN10 Landscape


Soil Profile Morphology:

Surface Soil


A10-15 cmDusky red (5YR3/4); heavy clay loam (fine sandy); hardsetting; moderate coarse to very coarse polyhedral structure; firm consistence (dry); pH 5.8; clear and smooth change to:
Photo: Site GN10 Profile
Site GN10 Profile
Subsoil

B2115-35 cmDark red (2.5YR3/6); light clay; moderate coarse blocky structure; strong consistence (dry); pH 6.7; clear and smooth change to:

B2235-50 cmDark red (2.5YR3/6); medium heavy clay; strong coarse to very coarse prismatic, parting to coarse blocky structure; very firm consistence (moist); few manganese soft concretions (1-2 mm); pH 7.1:

B2350+ cmMedium heavy clay; strong coarse to very coarse prismatic, parting to coarse blocky structure; roots to 100 cm (tending to follow prisms); pH 8.3.


Key Profile Features:
  • Lack of strong texture contrast between surface (A) horizon and subsoil (B21) horizon
Soil Profile Characteristics:

pH
Salinity Rating
Surface soil
(A1 horizon)
Moderately Acid
Very Low
Non-Sodic
None1
Upper subsoil
10 - 50 cm
Slightly Acid
Very Low
Non-Sodic
None
Deeper subsoil
(at 50 - 70 cm)
Moderately Alkaline
Very Low
Marginally Sodic
Slight2
1Slight dispersion after remoulding. 2Strong dispersion after remoulding.

Graph: Site GN10 pH levels
Graph: Site GN10 Salinity Levels
Graph: Site GN10 Sodicity levels
Graph: Site GN10 Clay%

Horizon
Horizon
Depth

(cm)
pH
(water)
pH
(CaCl
2)
EC 1:5
Exchangeable Cations
Exch.
Al

mg/kg
Exch.
Acidity meq/100g
Field
Capacity
pF 2.5
Wilting
Point
pF 4.2
Coarse Sand (0.2 -2 mm)
Fine Sand
(0.02 -0.2 mm)
Silt
(0.002 -0.02 mm)
Clay
(<0.002 mm)
Ca
Mg
K
Na
meq/100g
A1
0-15
5.8
4.8
<0.05
7.2
3.3
0.6
0.1
<10
11
29.1
16.7
3.6
34
25.5
33
B21
15-35
6.7
5.4
<0.05
7.9
5.8
0.2
0.1
<10
8.2
28.7
15.5
4.6
33.7
21.5
36.5
B22
35-50
7.1
5.9
<0.05
9.2
9.1
0.4
0.5
<10
10
vro
vro
6.2
33
21.5
58.5
B23
50+
8.3
7
0.05
8.6
10.4
0.4
1.1




3.9
21.2
11.5


Management Considerations (Briggs 1995):

Favourable Characteristics
  • Drainage - These 'heavy red' soils tend to drain well but can be prone to soaks.
  • Workability/Trafficability - These soils are generally easy to cultivate. However, they can become sticky when wet making cultivation difficult.
Limiting Features
  • Acidity/Alkalinity - The topsoil is moderately acid but becomes neutral to alkaline with depth. These soils have a reasonable ability to resist further acidification.
  • Erosion - The heavy reds have the potential of eroding when there is insufficient ground cover and when the ground is steep.
  • Weeds - Wild radish was mentioned as a limiting feature of these heavy red soils.
Cropping Considerations
  • This soil is considered to be a good cropping soil. Direct drilling is a feasible option that will help maintain soil structure.
  • Current Possibilities - Wheat, oats, barley, triticale, lupins, peas, faba beans, chick peas, linseed, lentils.
  • Further Possibilities - Canola, linola.

Pasture Considerations
  • The soil is also considered productive grazing country. Deeper rooted perennials may be able to tap into subsoil moisture and decrease groundwater recharge.
  • Current Possibilities - Phalaris (Australian Holdfast, Sirosa mix), Trikkala, Goulburn, Seaton Park, Lucerne.
References:

Management Considerations based on booklet: ' Soil Management Units in the Dookie Land Management Group Area' - compiled by Suzanne Briggs. Agriculture Victoria,1995.

Downes R.G. (1949). 'Soil, Land-Use, and Erosion Survey around Dookie, Victoria' , Bulletin 243, CSIRO, Victoria.

Profile Described By: Mark Imhof, John Martin and Sonia Thompson (4/5/94).
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