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Tyers (Ts)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Tyers- geoArea: 5 sq. km (<0.1%)

Tyers land system occurs on the Lake King side of the inner barrier where subsidence of the Pleistocene part of the barrier left only the tops of the old dune system protruding above lake level. Lacustrine and paludal in-filling has produced swampy flats between the old dune crests and these flats and remnant dunes are mapped in Tyers land system. The larger swamps are in Morass land system. The land forms are similar to those of Wollaston land system but their genesis is different. Also, the climate is more humid in Tyers land system.

The sandy soils are acidic, infertile and droughty, with dark topsoils, bleached subsurfaces and iron and/or humus-enriched pans at depth. The dunes are susceptible to wind erosion upon disturbance.

The ferny open woodland I of the dunes and the open woodland I of the flats are dominated mainly by E. botryoides and E. viminalis var. racemosa with Banksia spp. Salinas are bare of vegetation in the deepest parts and successively shallower areas towards the shore carry herbfield, rushland and a fringe of closed shrubland.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Tyers- image
This large-scale aerial photograph of an area in the north-east of Raymond Island shows the swampy flats (shrubby vegetation, lower left) and the tops of old dunes (trees, upper right), representative of Tyers land system.

Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual 600 - 900; lowest July or August (40 - 70), highest October (60 - 90)

    Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (9 - 10), highest February (19 - 20)
    Temperature <10C (av.): No months
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: December – March
Age, lithology

    Pleistocene barrier deposits of sands; Holocene lacustrine and paludal fills of fine sands and probably some peat
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Partly buried dune systems with intervening swampy in-filled flats

    0 - 20
    0 - 20
    Mostly uncleared: areas in the Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park; some apiculture; holiday housing

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Tyers- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Tyers- graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Dunes — the relict dune crests left above
lake level after subsidence of the barrier
Flats and plains — deposits in
submerged interdune areas
Drainage depressions, intermittently or
permanently inundated
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
10 - 15, (3 - 30)
<1, (0 - 2)
<1, (0 - 2)
Parent material
Aeolian sand
Lacustrine and paludal sand
Aeolian sand
No observations — probably acidic sand over
coffee rock
No observations — probably acidic sand
No observations — probably black acidic sand
over grey sand; may be saline in places
Humic Gleys
Surface texture
Surface consistence
Loose or soft
Loose or soft
Depth (m)
Nutrient status
Very low
Very low
Very low
Available soil water capacity
Very low
Very low
Very low
Perviousness to water
Very rapid
Very rapid
Very rapid
Somewhat excessive
Somewhat excessive
Very poor to somewhat poor
Exposed stone (%)
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Limited data — probably ferny open woodland I:
E. botryoides+ and/or E. viminalis var. racemosa+ with Banksia serrata or B. integrifolia (near lake shores) and Pteridium esculentum
Limited data — probably open woodland I:
E. botryoides+ with B. integrifolia
Limited data — probably zonation of vegetation with, from margins inwards:
Closed scrub of Melaleuca ericifolia
Rushland of Juncus maritimus
Herbfield of Salicornia spp.
Centres often with free water

    Affected process and trend
    Primary resultant deterioration
    Casual activities
    Primary off-site process
    Susceptibility of components
    Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:
    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in increased deep percolation and leaching
    Nutrient loss
    1; high
    Not determined
    Removal of trees
    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams
    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased wind velocity over soil and increased detachment of sand
    Wind erosion
    1; high
    2; low
    Uncommon: but locally severe
    Clearing, burning, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Encroachment by sand
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction
    Structure decline
    1; very low
    2,3; low
    Increased trafficking, export of organic matter
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased loosening of sand
    Wind erosion
    1; high
    2; low
    Uncommon: but locally severe
    As for wind erosion above
    Encroachment by sand
Comments: Regeneration of vegetative cover on the dunes is usually slow because of low-fertility soils and exposure to wind
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