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Stockdale (St)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Stockdale- geoArea: 368 sq. km (1.8%)

Stockdale land system occurs mainly on dissected Tertiary fan deposits close to the East Victorian Uplands. Dissection is deeper than usual for the Eastern lowlands due to high elevation, the steep slopes of the deposits and the coarse unconsolidated materials. Rounded hills occur with moderately steep slopes and a broad drainage pattern. Small landslides are very common in Stockdale land system, and larger examples have been noted on steeper slopes. Geology and topography are similar to Anderson 1 and 2 and Salt Creek land systems, but Stockdale land system is mapped on the sandier deposits. As sandy materials may be difficult to detect on air photographs, the boundaries must be considered as somewhat tentative.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Stockdale- image
Gentle to moderate slope typical of Stockdale land system; bracken indicates the sandy nature of the soils
Although the deposits are mainly sands, silty and clayey beds have been observed. The presence of a drainage system and landslides also point to the existence of less permeable strata at depth. Because of these strata and their effects on hydrological processes, Stockdale has been placed in a different geomorphological province from other land systems of sandy deposits. The sediments were weathered prior to deposition in the Tertiary and further weathering and leaching have occurred since. The soils are, therefore, mostly low in nutrients. Deep, moderately to strongly acidic Podzols and Earthy Sands predominate. Podzols also occur over clayey substrata where the clays are deeper than about 1.2 m. Where the clays are close to the surface, the soils are duplex with blocky subsoils and an acidic reaction.

The vegetation is mainly open forest II in which the most common dominant species is E. globoidea. Drainage depressions carry open forest I or II, mostly shrubby, or occasionally closed forest II in more protected areas.

Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual 500 - 800; lowest July (30 - 50), highest October (50 - 80)

    Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (8 - 10), highest February (19 - 21)
    Temperature <10C (av.): June - August
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
Age, lithology

    Tertiary fan and colluvial apron deposits of unconsolidated gravels, sands, minor silts and clays (Sale Group)
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Broadly dissected fans; rounded hills with moderate slopes and relief

    0 - 210
    20 - 100
    Mostly uncleared: hardwood forestry (minor timber products); bush grazing of cattle (limited); apiculture; some areas in Glenmaggie Flora and Fauna Reserve
    Minor proportion cleared: softwood plantations; grazing of sheep and beef cattle

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Stockdale- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Stockdale- graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Gentle to moderate slopes and broad crests with scattered steep short
Unchannelled sandy drainage depressions
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
6 - 10, (0 - 30)
Variable and uneven
<2, (0 - 5)
Straight or concave
Parent material
Sand, silt, gravel and clay, in places covered by windblown and
colluvial sand. Substrata variable over short distances
Alluvium, often sandy
Variable due to variation in parent material; dark grey to black
loamy sand to coarse sand topsoil grading through lighter grey to
yellowish brown sand, sometimes with coffee rock hard pan. Also dark
grey to black loamy sand to sandy loam over mottled yellowish brown
clay subsoil
Limited observations — probably dark greyish brown light-textured
topsoil, sometimes mottled, over stratified variously textured
mottled subsoil
Podzols, Earthy Sands, Yellow Podzolic Soils, Siliceous Sands
Uc2.21, Uc3.21, Uc4.32, Uc3.31, Uc4.11, Uc4.22, Uc4.31, Uc5.23, Dy3.21
Dy3.31, Dy5.41
Alluvial Soils, Wiesenboden
Uc5.23, Dy5.61
Surface texture
Coarse sand to sandy loam
Probably sand to sandy loam
Surface consistence
Very variable
Probably slightly hard when dry
Depth (m)
Nutrient status
Available soil water capacity
Perviousness to water
Moderate to rapid
Good (Podzols, Earthy Sands, Siliceous Sands); somewhat poor
(Yellow Podzolic Soils)
Very poor to poor
Exposed stone (%)
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open forest II:
Mainly mixed forests with composition and predominant species variable.
E. globoidea most commonly predominant; less common predominants include E. bosistoana, E. tereticornis, E. muellerana, E. sieberi and, near the coast, E. botryoides. E. sideroxylon, E. polyanthemos or E. cypellocarpa often associated
Mostly shrubby open forest I or II:
E. bridgesiana or E. ovata usually predominant; E. viminalis often associated
Occasional small areas of closed forest II:
Acmena smithii, climbers, ferns and epiphytes

    Affected process and trend
    Primary resultant deterioration
    Casual activities
    Primary off-site process
    Susceptibility of components
    Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:

    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep percolation and leaching

    b) increased regolith

    Nutrient loss


    1; high

    1; moderate

    Not determined


    Removal of trees

    Accelerated by major disturbance of the native vegetation

    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams

    Increased sediment load

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment

    Increased wind velocity over soil and increased detachment of sand
    Sheet and rill erosion

    Wind erosion
    1; moderate

    1; low

    Uncommon: local occurrences on exposed,
    cleared sites
    Clearing, logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, rabbit burrowing, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.

    Encroachment by sand
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction


    Reduced infiltration
    Structure decline

    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2; low

    1; moderate

    Increased trafficking, cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill erosion above

    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up

    Increased loosening of sand
    Gully erosion

    Wind erosion
    1,2; moderate

    1; low
    Uncommon, but locally severe

    Uncommon (as for wind erosion above)
    As for sheet and rill erosion above

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased sediment load in streams and sedimentation in lower areas

    Encroachment by sand
Comments: Most landslips appear to pre-date settlement size of slip correlated to steepness of slope. Some subsoils are very dispersive and road-side drains gully easily.
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