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Livingston (Ln)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Livingston- geoArea: 28 sq. km (0.2%)

The Balook Block of the South Victorian Uplands was raised, almost without tilting, between fault and monocline systems to the north and south. Some areas near the crest of the uplifted block have escaped deep dissection and remain as plateaux. These occur along the southern edge of the survey area and are mapped as Livingston land system. The slopes of the plateaux are gentle but as dissection is intense with shallow incision, the local terrain consists of steep-sided, low hills. The bedrock is composed of Cretaceous mudstones, siltstones and sandstones as for the adjacent Gunyah and Jeeralang land systems.

A humid climate acting on predominantly fine-textured sedimentary rock has produced deep, acidic, clayey soils. As with Gunyah and Jeeralang land systems these soils also tend to have higher nutrient status than most soils on sedimentary rock in the survey area.

The native vegetation is mainly E. regnans layered open forest III.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Livingston- image
The low steep hills are produced by intense shallow dissection of the remnant plateau surface. The deeply dissected surrounding terrain is mapped in Gunyah and Jeeralang land systems.

CLIMATE
Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual 900 - 1600; lowest January (60 - 90), highest August or October (120 - 150)

    Annual 8 - 12; lowest July (3 - 7), highest February (16 - 20)
    Temperature <10C (av.): May - September
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: December - February; occasional winter snow
GEOLOGY
Age, lithology

    Cretaceous mudstones, siltstones and sandstones of the Strzelecki Group
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Landscape
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Low steep hills with approximately accordant crests produced by intense shallow dissection

    360 - 580
    40 - 140
    Dendritic
    1.9
PRESENT LAND USE
    Mostly uncleared: hardwood forestry (mainly ash timber); apiculture
    Minor proportion cleared: grazed mainly by beef and dairy cattle on improved pastures; softwood plantations

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Livingston- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Livingston- graph

LAND COMPONENT
Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
1
90
Short steep slopes
2
10
Undissected plateau remnants with gentle slopes
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
35 - 45, (30 - 60)
Straight
10 - 15, (0 - 30)
Convex
SOIL
Parent material
Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone
Description
Very dark greyish brown or black clay loam grading into brown or yellowish brown blocky light or medium clay; moderately to strongly acidic, usually deep
Classification
Brown Earths
Uf6.31, Uf6.12, Gn4.31, Gn4.71, Gn4.81
Surface texture
Clay loam
Surface consistence
Hard when dry, firm when moist
Depth (m)
Generally>1.5
Nutrient status
Low to moderate
Available soil water capacity
Moderate to high
Perviousness to water
Moderate
Drainage
Moderately good to good
Exposed stone (%)
0
Sampled profile number
-
15
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Predominantly layered open forest III of E. regnans; occasionally open forest II, III, often shrubby, of E. obliqua on gentle slopes.
Alsophila australis and Dicksonia antarctica common in gullies

Disturbance
Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Form
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:

    — reduction in leaf area, rooting
    depth and/or perenniality


    — reduction in density of tree roots
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep
    percolation



    b) increased regolith
    wetness


    Decreased root-binding



    Nutrient loss




    Landslip



    Landslip



    Not determined




    1; moderate
    2; low


    1; moderate
    2; low



    Not determined




    Not determined



    Not determined



    Removal of trees




    Accelerated by major disturbance of native vegetation

    Accelerated by major disturbance of native vegetation



    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams

    Increased sediment load



    Increased sediment load

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    1; moderate
    2; low
    Not determined
    Clearing, logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Increased flash flows
    and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction

    With

    Reduced infiltration
    Structure decline


    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2; high



    1; moderate
    2; low
    Not determined



    Not determined
    Increased trafficking, cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    -



    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion
    1; moderate
    2; low
    Not determined
    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased sediment load.
    Comments: No observations of deterioration. Regeneration of vegetative cover is quite rapid because of good growing conditions
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