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Haunted Hills (HH)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Haunted Hills- geoArea: 29 sq. km (0.2%)

This land system occurs on Tertiary deposits uplifted with the South Victorian Uplands and the Yallourn Monocline movements. It is deeply dissected and elevation and relief are higher than in many other areas of Tertiary materials. The terrain consists of very high hills or low mountains, typically with a ridge-and-ravine topography and sometimes with very steep slopes, such as in the Yallourn North and Kornalla areas. Some broad ridge crests and less-steep slopes do occur.

The soil parent materials, which range from gravelly deposits to clays, have been variably modified by weathering processes. All the soils observed have deep clayey subsoils and leached acidic profiles. The upper horizons are commonly loamy or sandy. In places the subsoils and underlying layers are highly dispersive and tend to become fluid when wet. They are susceptible to gullying and slumping.

The vegetation is mainly open forest II with open forest III in drainage gullies and ravines.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Haunted Hills- image
Broad ridge crests and spurs with a few short, steep side-slopes.

CLIMATE
Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

Annual 700 - 1200; lowest January (40 - 70), highest October (70 - 100)

Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (8 - 10), highest February (19 - 21)
Temperature <10C (av.): May - September
Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
GEOLOGY
Age, lithology

Unconsolidated
Tertiary deposits of sands, clays and gravels
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Landscape
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

Steep hills and low mountains with mainly ridge-and-ravine topography

60 - 300
100 - 200
Dendritic
1.3
PRESENT LAND USEMostly uncleared: hardwood forestry (minor timber products); apiculture; bush grazing of cattle (limited).
Minor proportion cleared: grazing of beef and dairy cattle and sheep on improved pastures

    A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Gunyah- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Gunyah- graph

LAND COMPONENT
Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
1
60
Steep slopes, in places showing evidence of landslides
2
30
Broad ridge crests
3
10
Steeper slopes of drainage gullies and ravines
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Slopes %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
20 - 25, (10 - 40)
Straight
4, (0 - 10)
Convex
15 - 20, (10 - 25)
Straight
SOIL
Parent material
Very variable — sand, clay, gravel; ferruginised and silicified sediment; rarely, basaltic colluvium from adjacent land systems
Description
Variable; depending on local parent material— commonly gradational and duplex profiles, mainly with yellowish brown, less frequently with reddish brown, clay subsoil; moderately to strongly acid. May contain gravel
Limited observations — probably similar to
components 1 and 2 with shallower variants on
very steep slopes
Classification
Yellow Earths, Yellow Podzolic Soils, Red Podzolic Soils/Krasnozems
Gn2.84, Gn3.14, Gn4.51, Dy3.11, Dy5.21
Brown Earths
Gn4.82
Surface texture
Very variable; loamy sand to sandy clay loam
-
Surface consistence
Hard, sometimes slightly hard
Depth (m)
>2.0
Nutrient status
Usually low
Available soil water capacity
Low to moderate
Perviousness to water
Slow
Drainage
Somewhat poor to good
Exposed stone (%)
0
Sampled profile number
-
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open forest II:
Usually mixed forests with species composition
E. consideniana, E. obliqua, E. radiata,
Open forest II:
and predominance variable — including
E. sieberi E. dives, E. cypellocarpa
Open forest III, often shrubby:
Usually mixed forests with species composition and predominance variable — including E. consideniana, E. obliqua,
E. radiata, E. sieberi, E. dives,
E. cypellocarpa; E. viminalis on occasional alluvium in gullies

Disturbance
Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Form
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:


    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration,
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep
    percolation



    b) increased regolith
    wetness



    Not determined




    Landslip



    Not determined




    1,3; low - moderate



    Not determined




    Uncommon: but common in specific areas of component 3



    Removal of trees




    Usually after the removal of trees from steeper land



    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams

    Increased sediment load

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,3; high
    2; moderate
    Uncommon
    Clearing, logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, trafficking by stock.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction

    With


    Reduced infiltration
    Structure decline



    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2; low - moderate
    3; moderate


    1,3; high
    2; moderate
    Uncommon



    Uncommon
    Increased trafficking, cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    -



    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion

    Streambank erosion
    1,3; high
    2; moderate

    3; moderate - high
    Uncommon


    Uncommon
    As for sheet and rill erosion above

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased sediment load.


    Increased sediment load
    Comments: -
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