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Dutson (Dn)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Dutson- geoArea: 120 sq. km (0.6%)

In the Seaspray-Dutson area the land has been uplifted from beneath the sea by monoclinal movements associated with the Baragwanath Anticline. Perry, Barrier and Dutson land systems are widespread in this area. Dutson land system consists of almost flat to gently sloping plains with land forms of marine origin and with both sandy and sodic, clayey materials. Drainage is undeveloped and diversion or detention of run-off water behind old, coastal sand forms is common, resulting in many poorly-drained areas. Dutson is similar to Redgum I land system in age and topography but its heavier soils show the effects of marine deposition. Shallow groundwater of low to moderate salinity has been detected in some parts of this land system, resulting in a moderate salinity hazard in such areas.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Dutson- image
Uneven sandy plains with some woodland still remaining. The bracken is indicative of the sandy. well-drained nature of the soils.

The nature of the soils is determined largely by the depth of sand over more clayey substrata. Where the sands are deeper than 0.5 to I m the underlying clayey materials appear to have little or no influence on soil formation processes. These soils, with topsoil darkened by humus merge into paler-coloured sands that overlie soft, bright yellowish-brown, sandy layers or cemented coffee-rock. The accumulation of iron compounds may extend into the top of the clay. Where the clay is close to the surface, duplex soils have developed, with coarse- to medium-textured upper horizons abruptly overlying clays that are sodic and alkaline at depth.

Prior to clearing, grassy woodland II was probably the dominant vegetation, with woodland I and sedgeland in small swamps and swales.

CLIMATE
Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

Annual 500 - 800; lowest January (30 - 50), highest October (40 - 70)

Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (9 - 10), highest February (19 - 20)
Temperature <10C (av.): July
Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
GEOLOGY
Age, lithology

Pleistocene sands and clays of marine origin
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Landscape
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

Gently sloping plains

20 - 80
0 - 5
Undeveloped
0.2
PRESENT LAND USEMostly cleared: grazing of beef cattle and sheep on improved pastures; extensive softwood plantations
Minor proportion uncleared: bush grazing of cattle; apiculture

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Dutson- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Dutson- graph

LAND COMPONENT
Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
1
45
Clay plains with thin sand cover
2
30
Uneven sandy plains
3
20
Higher sandy rises
4
5
Swales and swamps
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
<2, (0 - 4)
Straight
<2, (0 - 4)
Straight
2, (0 - 5)
convex
<1, (0 - 2)
Straight or concave
SOIL
Parent material
Sand; marine silt and clay
Sand to sandy clay loam abruptly
overlying mottled, generally
alkaline clay at shallow depth
Sand
Sand
Sand
Description
Solodic and Solodized Solonetz
Dark sand over whitish sand
overlying bright yellowish brown
sand; yellow sand or sometimes
clay below
Dark sand over paler sand over
coffee rock: yellow sand below
No observations — probably black
sand over grey sand over coffee
rock or mottled clay
Classification
Soils
Dy3.42, Dy3.43, Db2.43
and other Dy3. - , Dy5. - and
Db2. - soils
Podzols
Uc2.21, Uc4.22 and other
Uc2. - and Uc4. - soils
Podzols
Uc4.3-
Podzols. Humic Gleys
-
Surface texture
Loamy sand to sandy clay loam
Sand
Sand
Surface consistence
Soft to slightly hard
Loose to soft
Soft
Depth (m)
>2.0
>2.0
>2.0
Nutrient status
Very low to low
Very low
Very low
Available soil water capacity
Moderate
Very low
Very low
Perviousness to water
Slow
Very rapid
Very rapid
Drainage
Poor
Somewhat excessive
Very poor to poor
Exposed stone (%)
0
0
0
Sampled profile number
-
72
-
-
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure of vegetation and characteristic species of dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Sands underlain by clays:
Mainly woodland I, II:
Deeper sands: E. viminalis var. racemosa E. bridgesiana, E. cephalocarpa and/or E. ovata; less commonly E. melliodora or E. tereticornis
Sedgeland:
Lepidosperma spp. in wetter areas
Woodland I:
E. ovata around margins

Disturbance
Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Form
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:


    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration.
    resulting in:

    a) increased deep
    percolation and leaching


    b) raised winter/spring
    watertable



    Nutrient loss



    Waterlogging


    Salting



    1,4; low
    2; moderate - high
    3; high

    1,2,4; moderate


    4; high



    Not determined



    Common


    Common



    Removal of trees



    Reduced water use by plants within the catchment

    Reduced water use by plants within the catchment



    Increased movement of water to groundwater.


    Increased waterlogging in lower areas

    Increased salting in lower areas

    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment





    Increased wind velocity
    over soil and increased
    detachment of sand
    Sheet and rill erosion





    Wind erosion
    1; low
    12; moderate





    3: high
    4; low
    Common






    Common
    Clearing, softwood logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earthmoving activities, rabbit burrowing, trafficking by stock and vehicles.

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.





    Encroachment by sand
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction

    With

    reduced infiltration
    Structure decline


    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,4; low - moderate
    2,3; low


    1; low
    Not determined



    Common
    Increased trafficking and cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    -



    Increased waterlogging in lower areas
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased loosening of sand
    Wind erosion
    1,2; moderate
    3: high
    4; low
    Common
    As for wind, sheet and rill erosion above
    Encroachment by sand
    Comments: Seasonal waterlogging is common and a number of these affected areas have become permanently saline
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