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Cascade (Cc)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Cascade - geoArea: 71 sq. km (0.4%)

Cascade land system occurs below the subalpine tract. mostly flanking the Baw Baw Plateau, and is traversed by many drainage lines. Although the gradient is moderate, the terrain is hilly with short, steep slopes, rocky crests, and some bogs. Dissection is based upon jointing pattern in the granodiorite, with major streams incised in joints normal to the contour.

A cool climate, high rainfall and a parent rock that weathers easily have produced deep soils, even on steep slopes. Weathering of iron-hearing minerals, combined with leaching of bases and a high production of organic matter by the vegetation, have resulted in moderately acidic, well-aggregated soils, with a crumb or fine blocky structure in the upper horizons and more earthy fabric in the subsoil.

The vegetation is mainly shrubby open forest III, with some closed forest II and III in narrow drainage floors and open forest II on rocky crests.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - </font>land system Cascade - image
Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) forest with an understorey of tree ferns characteristic of slopes at lower elevations.

CLIMATE
Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual L200 - 1800: lowest January or February (70 - 100), highest August or September (130 - L80)

    Annual 8 - I2; lowest July (3 - 7), highest February (16 - 20)
    Temperature <10C (av.): April - October
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: February; frequent winter snow
GEOLOGY
Age, lithology
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Landscape
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Moderately sloping flanks below the Baw Baw Plateau

    560 - 1320
    180 - 360
    Rectangular
    1.3
PRESENT LAND USE
    Uncleared: hardwood forestry (ash and general construction timber); apiculture; small areas included in Baw Baw National Park

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Cascade - csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Cascade - graph

LAND COMPONENT
Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
1
75
Slopes, mostly short and steep
2
10
Crests often rocky
15
Narrow drainage depressions. often
with small peat bogs
PHYSIOGRAPHY
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
25 - 30, (20 - 50)
Straight to convex
<5, (0 - 10)
Convex
<1. (0 - 5)
Concave
SOIL
Parent material
Granodiorite
Alluvium and colluvium
Description
Black sandy loam to sandy clay loam, merging into brown similarly textured or more clayey subsoil with weak structure; generally shallower in component 2
Shallow sandy and gravelly undifferentiated soils; localised organic soils
Classification
Brown Earths
Uc6.11, Uc6.14, Gn2.11, Gn2.41
Brown Earths
Um7.11
Alluvial Soils, Acid Peat
Uc1. - .0
Surface texture
Sandy loam to sandy clay
Sandy loam to sandy clay
Variable
Surface consistence
Soft
Soft
Soft
Depth (m)
>2.0
>2.0
>2.0
Nutrient status
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate; low for peats
Available soil water capacity
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Perviousness to water
Rapid
Rapid
Rapid
Drainage
Good
Good
Somewhat poor; very poor for peats
Exposed stone (%)
0 - 5
0 - 5
0
Sampled profile number
-
-
-
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(Predominant species)
Shrubby open forest Ill:
Higher elevations — E. delegatensis+ with or without E. nitens; E. nitens+
Lower elevations — E. regnans+ with or without
E. obliqua
Closed forest II, III of Nothofagus
cunninghamii sometimes on lower slopes
Limited data — probably mainly open forest II:
E. delegatensis
Bogs principally with Richea continentis,
Carex appressa and Sphagnum spp. Scattered
N. cunninghamii and Leptospermum grandifolium
on higher ground

Disturbance
Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Form
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:
    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration, resulting in increased deep percolation
    Nutrient loss
    Not determined
    Not determined
    Removal of trees
    Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams
    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    1; moderate
    2; low
    Not determined
    Clearing, logging, burning, overgrazing, road building and other earth-moving activities.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction

    With

    reduced infiltration
    Structure decline



    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2; moderate
    3; high


    1; moderate
    2; low
    Not determined



    Not determined
    Loss of organic matter
    from topsoil.


    As for sheet and rill
    erosion above
    -



    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion
    1,2; low - moderate
    Not determined
    As for sheet and rill
    erosion above
    Increased sediment load.
    Comments: No observations of deterioration
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