Your gateway to a wide range of natural resources information and associated maps

Victorian Resources Online

Boola (Bo)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Boola- geoArea: 77 sq. km (0.4%)

Some areas of Tertiary deposits have been uplifted by movements associated with the Yallourn Monocline. Relatively undissected, gently undulating remnants of the former Tertiary surface at these higher elevations are mapped in Boola land system. Tertiary deposits tilted along the Monocline have been more dissected to form hilly topography and these are mapped in Anderson 2 land system. Deeply-dissected. steep, mountainous areas on the uplifted Tertiary sediments are in Haunted Hills land system.

The moderate to high rainfall and extensive weathering of the Tertiary sediments have produced highly-developed horizons that are strongly leached and often moderately to strongly acidic. Variation does occur according to changes in parent material. On deep sandy deposits, grey, bleached topsoils are underlain by coffee-rock horizons. Where the parent material contains sufficient clay, yellow duplex soils with medium blocky-structured, clay sub-soils appear to dominate, although yellow, gradational soils with fine granular-structured subsoils were also observed. Sheet erosion is a hazard where sandy topsoils overlie less permeable materials at relatively shallow depth.

The vegetation is mainly open forest II with open forest III on lower slopes.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Boola- image
Shrubby open forest growing on a mid-slope of moderate gradient

Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual 700 - 1200; lowest January or February (40 - 70). highest August or October (90 - 120)

    Annual 12 - 14: lowest July (8 - 10), highest February (19 - 21)
    Temperature <10C (av.): May - September
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
Age, lithology

    Tertiary outwash fan deposits; unconsolidated gravels. sands and clays
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Gently undulating to hilly terrain

    180 - 400
    60 - l60
    Mostly uncleared: hardwood forestry (minor timber products, limited general construction); apiculture
    Minor proportion cleared: grazing of beef and dairy cattle and fat lambs, mainly on improved pastures: softwood plantations (limited)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Boola- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Boola- graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Flat plains to moderate slopes
Steep slopes
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
Plains: 3 - 5. (0 - 10): slopes: 15 - 20. (10 - 25)
Convex to concave
30 - 35. (20 - 40)
Parent Material
Variable: clay, silt, sand and gravel
Few observations — deep sand deposits: thick light grey sandy topsoil over hard brown cemented sand (coffee rock) overlying yellow sand. Other areas: probably predominantly greyish brown sand to clay loam topsoil over mottled yellowish brown blocky acidic clay subsoil: some finely structured yellowish brown acidic sandy clay loam or clay loam
Uc2.34, Uc2.36, Dy3.12, Dy3.21, Gn4.81, Gn4.51
Surface texture
Very variable: sand to clay loam
Surface consistence
Variable depending on texture
Depth (m)
Nutrient status
Very low for sandy soils; low to moderate elsewhere
Available soil water capacity
Very low for sandy soils: low to moderate elsewhere
Perviousness to water
Rapid on sands: slow to moderate elsewhere
Exposed stone
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and characteristic species of dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open forest II. often shrubby: Mostly mixed forests with species including E. consideniana+, E. muellerana+, E. sieberi+ (upper slopes). E. dives and E. globoidea
Limited data — probably open forest III with species including E. Cypellocarpa. E. muellerana, E. obliqua and E. sieberi. E. radiata (presumed)

Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:
    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration; resulting in increased deep percolation and leaching
    Nutrient loss
    1; low - high
    2; low
    Not determined
    Removal of trees
    Increased movement of water to groundwater: increased base-flow of streams
    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased overland flow and soil detachment
    Sheet and rill erosion
    l; low
    2; moderate
    Not determined
    Clearing. Logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, rabbit burrowing, trafficking by stock and vehicles.
    Increased flash flows and sediment load.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction


    reduced infiltration
    Structure decline

    Sheet and rill erosion
    1,2 low - moderate

    1; low
    2: moderate
    Not determined

Not determined
    Increased trafficking and cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

    As for sheet and rill
    erosion above

    Increased flash flows
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased soil break-up
    Gully erosion
    1: low
    2; moderate
    Not determined
    As for sheet and rill erosion above
    Increased sediment load.
Comments: No observations of deterioration
Page top