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Booran 1 (B1)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Booran1- geoArea: 23 sq. km (0.1%)

This land system occurs on the modern outer barrier along the coastline and consists of the Ninety Mile Beach and associated berms and a narrow coastal dune system; all of Holocene age. The dune system is variable in form. It is composed of an almost continuous, linear, young foredune, sometimes plastered against an older dune field which may be almost completely buried by the younger foredune. Where the older dunes are higher than the foredune, the old dunes have an irregular shape, probably due to many past breaches by the wind. Elsewhere, the older dune field consists of a series of closely spaced, low ridges, parallel to, and immediately behind, the foredune. The modern barrier system has been built up of highly-calcareous marine sands. The soils increase in age with distance from the foredune and tend to become more leached and to have decreased lime content. Lime is not found in the upper two metres of soil in the fourth and older dunes. However the regular progression is upset where there is a major difference in the age of adjacent dunes. Here, highly-calcareous soils may abut non-calcareous soils.

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Booran1- image
Beach and foredune of Booran 1 land system
Booran 1 land system is intrinsically unstable, with youthful, often mobile, unconsolidated materials and droughty soils not conducive to plant growth. It is highly susceptible to wind erosion and to loss of nutrients by leaching.

Lime content affects the composition of the native vegetation. The largely unconsolidated beach and berm carry open grassland near the dunes. This changes to an increasingly greater cover of low shrubland up the seaward face of the foredune. On the crest and inland slope of the foredune and on any succeeding rear dunes with calcareous sands a closed scrub provides complete cover. On the rear dunes with non-calcareous sands, this is replaced by ferny open woodland I.

Rainfall, mean (mm)
Temperature, mean (C)
Seasonal growth limitations

    Annual 500 - 800; lowest January (30 - 50). highest October (40 - 70)

    Annual 14; lowest July (10), highest February (19)
    Temperature <10C (av.): No months
    Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
Age, lithology

    Holocene marine sands in littoral and coastal zones
Elevation range (m)
Relative relief (m)
Drainage pattern
Drainage density (km/km2)

    Beaches. berms and coastal dunes of varying ages

    0 - 20
    0 - 15
    Mostly uncleared: recreation — surf-fishing: some areas in Gippsland Lakes Coastal Park; apiculture
    Minor proportion cleared: residential use

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Booran1- csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Booran1- graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Beach and berm
Young foredune – seaward facing slope
Young foredune – landward facing slope and crest
Older dunes with variable morphology
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
1 - 5, (-)
30 - 60. (20 - 70)
20 - 40. (15 - 50)
10 - 25. (-)
0 - 10. (-)
Parent material
Wind-sorted sand containing shell fragments of marine origin
Pale brown or yellowish calcareous sands; uniform texture except for darkening by organic matter in the topsoil
No observations — probably mainly pale sand with some organic matter in the topsoil. All or part of the original calcareous material lost from topsoil; massive calcareous concretions sometimes at depth
Calcareous Sands
Siliceous Sands; probably Calcareous Sands
Uc1.1- Uc1.2-
Surface texture
Surface consistence
Depth (m)
Nutrient status
Very low to low
Very low
Available soil water capacity
Very low to low
Very low to low
Perviousness to water
Very rapid
Very rapid
Somewhat excessive
Somewhat excessive
Exposed stone (%)
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and characteristic species of dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open grassland: Spinifex hirsutus+
Low shrubland: Acacia longifolia+
Closed scrub: Leptospermum laevigatum+
Closed scrub of
Leptospermum laevigatum+
on calcareous rear dunes
Open ferny woodland I with
Banksia integrifolia+ and
Pteridium esculentum on
non-calcareous sands;
E. vim malts var. racemosa
occasionally on non-calcareous
sands near Golden Beach
Closed scrub of
Leptospermum laevigatum on
calcareous sands
Ferny open woodland I of
B. integrifolia on non- calcareous sands

Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Casual activities
Primary off-site process
Susceptibility of components
Incidence with components
    Alteration of vegetation:
    — reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
    Reduced transpiration, resulting in increased deep percolation and leaching
    Nutrient loss
1: moderate
2,3.4; high
5: moderate - high
Not determinedRemoval of trees
    Increased movement of water to groundwater.
    Increased exposure of surface soil
    Increased wind velocity over soil and increased detachment of sand
    Wind erosion
1; high - very high
2; very high
3: moderate - very high
4; moderate - high
5; low
CommonClearing, burning, construction activities (particularly tracks and road hatters), trafficking by humans and vehicles.
    Encroachment by sand.
    Increased physical pressure on soil
    Increased compaction
    Structure decline
12.3,4: very low
5: low
Not determinedIncreased trafficking export of organic matter
    Increased soil disruption
    Increased loosening of sand
    Wind erosion
As for wind erosion aboveCommonAs for sheet and rill erosion above
    Encroachment by sand.
Comments: Regeneration of vegetative cover is difficult and restoration expensive because of dry. low-fertility soils. The problem is compounded in components 12, and 3 (crests) by strong winds. moving sand and salt spray.
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