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Anderson 1 (A1)

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Anderson1 - geoArea: 176 sq. km (0.9%)

Anderson 1 land system occurs where coarse, weakly-consolidated, Tertiary, fan deposits have suffered relatively deep dissection close to the margins of the East Victorian Uplands. Dissection has produced rounded hills with moderate slopes and a broad drainage pattern. Similar terrain on unconsolidated sediments is also found in Anderson 2, Stockdale and Salt Creek land systems. However, Anderson 2 is moister and thus has vegetative differences. Stockdale is notably sandier and Salt Creek has predominantly E. tereticornis forests. Boundaries between Anderson 1 and Stockdale land systems are tentative only.
A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Anderson1 - image
Gentle slopes now cleared and used for grazing
The dominant soil parent materials vary over short distances from sandy, silty or clayey. In places the entire profile has developed in sand, often with a coffee-rock layer at depth. This layer may be replaced by ferruginous nodules when the sand is underlain by clay. In less sandy deposits, finely-structured, medium-textured uniform soils occur together with duplex soils having dark grey, sandy loams overlying yellowish brown acidic clays. Limestone-derived, brown loams and calcareous, duplex soils occur in minor areas. The sandy topsoils of duplex soils are susceptible to sheet erosion and the deeper sands to leaching. The neutral to alkaline dispersive clay subsoils are susceptible to gullying.

The native vegetation, now largely removed, is mainly open forest II or III, occasionally shrubby, with closed forest II in a few sheltered drainage corridors. Similar forests probably covered most of the area prior to clearing.

    Rainfall, mean (mm)
Annual 600 - 900; lowest July or August (30 - 50), highest October (50 - 80)
    Temperature, mean (C)
Annual 12 - 14; lowest July (8 - 10), highest February (19 - 21)
    Seasonal growth limitations
Temperature <10C (av.): June - August
Rainfall < potential evapotranspiration: November – March
    Age, lithology
Tertiary fan and colluvial apron deposits; unconsolidated gravels, sands, silts and clays (Sale Group); minor marine limestones (Seaspray Group)
Dissected relict coalescing fans marginal to the uplands
    Elevation range (m)
0 – 220
    Relative relief (m)
40 – 140
    Drainage pattern
    Drainage density (km/km2)
Mostly cleared: grazing of beef and dairy cattle on improved pasture; softwood plantations.
Minor proportion uncleared: hardwood forestry (minor timber products): small area in Nyerimelang Park

A study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Anderson1 - csA study of the land in the Catchment of Gippsland Lakes - Vol 2 - land system Anderson1 - graph

Percentage of land system
Diagnostic features
Uneven, gentle to moderate slopes, occasionally steep
Steep valley slopes with exposed limestone
(far east only)
Valley flats
Slope %, typical and (range)
Slope shape
7 - 15, (0 - 30)
20- 30, (15 - 40)
Straight to slightly concave
2, (0 - 5)
Parent material
Very variable; sand, silty clay or gravel
Variable alluvial material
Limited observations – variable; deep yellowish brown or brown sand over coffee rock or clay; yellowish brown fine structured sandy clay loam to clay loam; yellowish brown mottled duplex soil.
Limited observations – complex of shallow dark greyish brown loam to clay loam and deeper duplex soil with dark yellowish brown mottled calcareous clay subsoil.
No observations – soils vary with parent materials; probably mainly medium to heavy textured and greyish brown with mottles, possibly sometimes with deep sand topsoil.
Podzols, Earthy Sands, Yellow Earths, Solodic Soils
Uc3.41, Uc5.22, Um5.52, Dy3.22
Rendzinas, Red-brown Earths
Um6.11, Db2.13
Humic Gleys likely
Surface texture
Often sandy
Often loamy
Surface consistence
Often very friable when moist
Friable to very firm when moist
Depth (m)
Nutrient status
Very low to low
Moderate to high
Probably low
Available soil water capacity
Low to moderate
Perviousness to water
Variable; slow for clay subsoil
Slow to moderate
Mostly good
Very poor to poor
Exposed stone (%)
Sampled profile number
Structure of vegetation and
characteristic species of
dominant stratum
(+ Predominant species)
Open forest II, shrubby open forest III:
E. globoidea+, E. cypellocarpa, often with
E. polyanthemos and occasionally E. bosistoana:
E. sieberi+ on upper slopes
Open forest 11. 111:
Limited data — probably mainly E. hauerona.
E. melliodora, E. cypellocarpa and E. elata
Limited data — probably mainly open forest
II, III with E. cypellocarpa+ (observed),
E. bridgesia+, E. viminalis (presumed)
Occasionally closed forest II of Acmena
smithii. climbers, ferns and epiphytes

Affected process and trend
Primary resultant deterioration
Causal activities
Primary off-site process
FormSusceptibility of
Incidence within
Alteration of vegetation:
— reduction in leaf area, rooting depth and/or perenniality
Reduced transpiration, resulting in:

a) increased deep percolation and leaching

b) increased infiltration and regolith wetness

Nutrient loss

Landslip and/or soil

1; low - high
2; low

1; low

Not determined


Removal of trees

Usually after the removal of trees from steeper land

Increased movement of water to groundwater; increased base-flow of streams

Increased sediment load

Increased exposure of surface soilIncreased overland flow and soil detachmentSheet and rill erosion12; moderate - high
3; low
CommonClearing, logging, burning, overgrazing, road and dam building and other earth-moving activities, rabbit burrowing, trafficking by stock and vehicles.Increased flash flows and sediment load.
Increased physical pressure on soilIncreased compaction


reduced infiltration
Structure decline

Sheet and rill erosion
1; low
2,3; moderate - high

1,2; moderate - high
3; low

Increased trafficking and cultivation, overgrazing, export of organic matter

As for sheet and rill erosion above

Increased flash flows
Increased soil disruptionIncreased soil break-up

Increased loosening of sand
Gully erosion

Wind erosion
1,2,3; moderate - high

1; moderate on sandy
Uncommon, but local occurrences.

Uncommon; local occurrences on exposed cleared sites.
As for sheet and rill erosion above.

Trafficking, overgrazing, rabbit burrowing, cultivating, earthmoving activities.
Increased sediment load.

Encroachment by sand.
Comments: -
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