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Soils on Older Consolidated Sediments

Orcd - Broad Ridge tops with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock | Org - Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock | Orgd - Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Org | Orm - Moderate Slopes with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock | Ors - Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock | Orsd - Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Ors

Org - Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock

Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock - OrgGentler Ordovician land which has been separated from the Ors unit on the basis of slope, vegetation and soils. The unit is scattered across the northern part of the Shire and occupies 6.7% of the survey area, 47 km2.

There are some areas of salting on the lower slopes and drainage lines, particularly where this unit is close to Tgn. The salting appears to be associated with clearing; the increased water infiltrating through the soil and picking up soluble salts within the Tertiary and Ordovician sediments. These salts are then deposited where, the water comes to the surface.

It is mainly used for grazing and cereal cropping but some parts are still forested.

SOILS
The soils do not vary much except in the drainage lines, although they do get shallow towards the crests. The description below is fairly typical of soil profiles found in Component 1.

Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Keys: Dy 3.41/CL-L, 10-40 cm/slate and sandstone, 80-180 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist, clay loams, apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
A2
10-30
Greyish yellow brown (10YR 4/2) when moist; clay loam; apedal, hydrophobic and massive; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.8; sharp .boundary.
B
30-150
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) when moist; red mottling; medium clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when dry is very hard, pH 5.5; with 4% gravel.
C
150
Slates and sandstone interbedded.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
80
2
15
3
5
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 585 – 685
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician, slate and sandstone
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Slightly dissected plains
Elevation (range) m
210 - 350
Local relief (av.) m
8
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.8
Land form
Undulating plain
Position on land form
Long gentle slope
Crest
Drainage line
Slope (range) %, slope shape
3-6 ; Straight
1-3 ; Convex
1-3 ; Concave
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. obliqua
E. obliqua, E. radiata
E. ovata, E. obliqua
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium-clay. silt, sand and gravel
Description
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Mottled yellow and red gradational soils
Factual key
Dy 3.41
Dy 3.41
Gn 3
Surface texture
Clay loam
Loam - clay loam
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate-low
High
Low-moderate
Depth (range) m
0.8 - 1.8
0.5 - 1.0
1.5 - 2.5
LAND USE
Grazing with some forestry and cropping (cereal)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Hard setting surfaces, dispersibility
Moderate dispersibility, poorly drained site, hard setting
surfaces, seasonal high watertable
Processes
Overland flow, leaching of salts
Overland flow, leaching of salts
Overland flow, accumulation of salts, periodic
waterlogging
Forms
Minor sheet, rill and gully erosion, surface compaction
Minor sheet and rill erosion, surface compaction
Salting, minor gully erosion


Orgd - Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Org

Plains with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock.  Drier than Org - OrgdGently undulating plain on Ordovician sediments in the Bamganie area, near the Leigh River and in some isolated patches east of She Oaks. (it is similar to Org but has a drier climate.) The total area of the unit is 3.2 km2 which represents 0.4% of the Shire.

The main soil is a mottled yellow, duplex soil formed on slates and sandstone; however, there are occasional sandy ridges. (Salting may occur on lower slopes and in the drainage lines, especially where the unit is close to Tgn or Tgnd. Gully erosion may occur in saltaffected areas.

The main land use is grazing with some cereal cropping.

SOILS
The most common soil is that of Component 1.

Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Keys: Dy 3.41/FSL-LS, 10-40 cm/Ordovician sediments, 100-200 cm.

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
A2
10-30
Greyish yellow brown (10YR 4/2) when moist; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
B
30-150
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) when moist; red mottling; medium clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.5; with 4% gravel.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
80
2
15
3
5
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 585-685
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician slate and sandstone
Remnants of Tertiary sandy capping over
Ordovician sediments
Ordovician; slate and sandstone
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Slightly dissected rolling plains in the "Sammie" area near the Leigh River
Elevation (range) m
200 - 255
Local relief (av.) m
10
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.3
Land form
Rolling plain
Position on land form
Long gentle slope
Sandy ridges
Depression line
Slope (range) %, slope shape
2-5 ; Straight
1-3 ; Convex
1-3 ; Concave
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest ?
Dominant species
E. Polyanthemos, Casuarina Spp. and others ?
E. Viminalis ?, Casuarina Spp.
E. Camaldulensis
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rook
Unconsolidated sands over in-situ weathered rock
Alluvium
Description
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Pale uniform sands over mottled yellow duplex soils
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Factual key
Dy 3.41
Uc 1/Dy 3.41
Dy 3.21
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Sand - Loamy sand
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate-low
High
Low-moderate
Depth (range) m
1.0 - 2.0
1.0 - 2.0
1.5 - 2.5
LAND USE
Grazing with some cropping (cereal)
Grazing
Grazing with some cropping (cereal)
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Permeability, nutrient-holding capacity
Moderate dispersibility, poorly rained site, hard
setting surfaces, seasonal high watertable
Processes
Overland flow, leaching of salts
Leaching
Overland flow, accumulation of salts, periodic
waterlogging
Forms
Minor sheet, rill and gully erosion, surface
compaction
Nutrient decline
Some salting, gully erosion


Orcd - Broad Ridge tops with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock

Broad Ridge Tops with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock - OrcdBroad crests associated with the Orad land system to the north-east of the Shire. It represents the intermediate stage in natural erosion of the landscape that occurs between the broad crests capped with Tertiary sediments (Tgn and Tgnd) and the narrow crests of steep Ordovician country (Orsd). Although the Tertiary material has largely been removed by natural erosion, it still has some influence on the soil, e.g. the topsoil is sandier than usual.

There is a group of about ten small areas of this unit east of Meredith, totalling 3.5 km2, or 0.5% of the Shire.
The land is generally cleared and grazing is the main land use.

SOILS
The soils vary from red mottled yellow duplex soils through to red duplex soils where the influence of the Tertiary is stronger. The former are more common and an example is described below.

Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: Hy 3.41/FSL-LS, 10-40 cm/Ordovician sediments, 50-150 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
A2
10-30
Greyish yellow brown (10YR 4/2) when moist; fine sandy loam; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
B
30-80
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) when moist; with red mottling; medium clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.5; with 4% gravel.
C
80+
Weathering Ordovician sediments.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
100
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 600 - 630
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician slates and sandstones
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Some broader ridge tops west of Steiglitz
Elevation (range) m
1688- 335
Local relief (av.) m
50
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.1
Land form
Broad ridge tops
Position on land form
Crest
Slope (range) %, slope shape
1-5 ; Convex
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Low open forest to open forest
Dominant species
E. macrorhyncha, E. polyanthemos, E. goniocalyx
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Mottled yellow acid duplex soils
Factual key
Dy 3.41 and Dr 3.41
Surface texture
Fine sandy clay loam
Permeability
Moderate
Depth (range) m
0.3 - 1.2
LAND USE
Low quality forestry
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surface
Processes
Overland flow
Forms
Minor sheet erosion


Orm - Moderate Slopes with Duplex Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary

Moderate Slopes with Duplex Soils on Orodivican Sedimentary Rock - OrmRolling terrain on Ordovician slates and sandstones to the north of the Shire. The total area of 6.7 km2 represents 1.0% of the Shire.

The land has been separated from Org on the basis of slope and local relief. The steeper slopes of Orm increase the hazard of erosion on disturbed soil surfaces. Most of the land is cleared and it is generally used for grazing.

SOILS
The soils do not vary much except in the drainage lines and on some of the narrower create. The main variation is in depth to the sedimentary rock. The example below represents a fairly common profile.

Mottled Yellow Duplex Soils

Factual Key: DY 3.41/CL-L, 10-40 cm/slates and sandstone, 60-120 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A1
0-10
Brownish black (10YR 3/2) when moist; clay loams; apedal and massive; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
A2
10-25
Greyish yellow brown (10YR 4/2) when moist; clay loam; apedal, hydrophobic and massive; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.8; sharp boundary.
B
25-120
Yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) when moist; red mottling; medium clay; strong angular blocky 2 mm; consistence when dry is very hard; pH 5.5; with 4% gravel.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
85
2
10
3
5
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 630 - 685
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician; slate and sandstone
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Slightly dissected plains
Elevation (range) m
310 - 350
Local relief (av.) m
13
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.8
Land form
Rolling plain
Position on land form
Long gentle slope
Crest
Drainage line
Slope (range) %, slope shape
3-10 ; Straight
1-3 ; Convex
1-3 ; Concave
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Woodland
Open forest
Dominant species
E. viminalis, E. obliqua
E. obliqua, E. radiata
E. ovata, E. obliqua
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium-clay, silt, sand and gravel
Description
Mottled yellow duplex soils
Shallow stony red gradational soils
Mottled yellow and red gradational soils
Factual key
Dy3.41
Gn 3.71
Gn 3
Surface texture
Clay loam
Gravelly loam
Clay loam
Permeability
Moderate-low
High
Low-moderate
Depth (range) m
0.6 - 1.2
0.4 - 0.7
1.5 - 2.5
LAND USE
Grazing with some forestry
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Hard setting surfaces
Hard setting surfaces, dispersibility
Moderate dispersibility, poorly drained site, hard
setting surfaces, seasonal high watertable
Processes
Overland flow, leaching of salts
Overland flow, leaching of salts
Overland flow, accumulation of salts, periodic
waterlogging
Forms
Moderate sheet, rill and gully erosion
Minor sheet and rill erosion, surface compaction
Moderate salting, gully erosion


Orh - Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sediments

Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock - OrhHilly terrain on Ordovician elates and sandstone located in the north-central and northwestern parts of the Shire. There are only a few areas of mappable dimensions and the total of 8.1 km2 represents 1.1% of the Shire.

The slopes are not as steep as for Ore though the soils are fairly shallow and just as erodible. The sedimentary rock is often exposed or is just below the surface on the upper slopes and crests.

Most of the land is cleared but is only capable of supporting grazing at a fairly low carrying capacity. The drainage lines often contain gullies, some of which are still actively eroding. It is similar to Orhd but the climate here is wetter.

SOILS
The most common soils are either mottled yellow gradational or duplex soils, often depending on the steepness of the slope. The soil described is common on Component 1.

Red Mottled. Yellow Gradational Soils - Fine Structure

Factual Key: Gn 3.71/CL, 5-15 cm/slates and sandstone, 50-120 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-8
Brown (7.5YR 4/3) when moist; gravelly clay loam; apedal, massive and hydrophobic; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B1
8-30
Bright reddish brown (5YR 5/6) when moist with abundant red brown mottles; light medium clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 5.8; diffuse boundary with colluvial stones.
B2
30-70
Reddish brown (5YR 4/6) when moist with abundant red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B/C
70-80
As B2 with 60-80% weathering. Ordovician sedimentary rock.
R
80+
Ordovician rock.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
48
2
45
3
5
4
2
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 660 - 710
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician; elates and sandstones
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Hilly areas in the north of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
213 - 350
Local relief (av.) m
45
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
3.4
Land form
Hills
Position on land form
Dry exposed slopes
Crest
Drainage line
Moist protected elopes
Slope (range) %, slope shape
10-25 ; Straight
0-10 ; Convex
1-10 ; Concave
8-20 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Tall open forest
Dominant species
E. dives, E. obliqua E. viminalis,
E. radiata
E. obliqua, E. dives, E. viminalis,
E. radiata
E. radiata, E. viminalis, E. obliqua
E.obliqua, E. ovata, E. radiata,
E. viminalis
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium, clay, silt, sand, gravel
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Mottled yellow gradational or duplex
soils, fine structure
Shallow stony red and yellow
gradational soils
Black rational soil, (variable)
Mottled yellow gradational or duplex
soils, fine structure
Factual key
Gn 3.71 or Dy 3.41
Gn 3.71
Gn 3
Gn 3.71 or Dy 3.41
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Gravelly loam
Clay loam
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
High
High
Moderate-low
High
Depth (range) m
0.5 - 1.2
0.3 - 0.8
0.7 - 1
0.8 - 1.8
LAND USE
Mainly forestry, grazing
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces
Moderate slopes, hard setting surfaces
Moderate permeability, hard setting
surfaces, dispersibility, seasonal high
watertable hard setting surfaces
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow
Overland flow, subsurface flow,
waterlogging
Overland flow
Forms
Moderate sheet and rill erosion,
surface compaction
Moderate sheet and rill erosion, surface
compaction
Moderate gully. erosion, surface
compaction
Minor sheet and rill erosion


Orhd - Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Orh

Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock.  Drier than Orh - OrhdHilly terrain on Ordovician sediments located within the generally steeper Ordovician country between Maude and the Durdidwarrah Reservoirs. There are only a few areas of mappable dimensions and the total of 4.2 km2 represents 0.6% of the Shire. It is similar to Qrh, but the climate is drier.

The slopes are not as steep as for Orsd, but the soils are fairly shallow and are just as erodible. The sedimentary rock is often exposed or is just below the surface on the upper elopes and crests. The drainage lines often contain gullies, some of which are still actively eroding. Most of the land is cleared but is only capable of supporting grazing at a fairly low carrying capacity.

SOILS
The soils are fairly consistent within the land system. Where slopes are gentler and therefore the soils are deeper, duplex soils are more common than gradational soils. The soil described below represents an example of a gradational soil found on steeper slopes.

Mottled, Yellow Gradational Soils - Fine Structure

Factual Key: Gn 3.71/CL, 5-15 cm/weathered Ordovician sediments, 30-100 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-8
Brown (7.5YR 4/3) when moist; gravelly clay loam; apedal, massive and hydrophobic; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B1
8-30
Bright reddish brown (5YR 5/6) when moist with abundant red brown mottles; light medium clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 5.8; diffuse boundary with colluvial stones.
B2
30-50
Reddish brown (5YR 4/6) when moist with abundant red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B/C
50-60
As B2 with 60-80% weathering. Ordovician sedimentary rock.
R
60+
Ordovician rock.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
49
2
44
3
5
4
2
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 580 - 600
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician slates and sandstones
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Hilly areas mainly in north-east of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
137 - 335
Local relief (av.) m
30
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
1.3
Land form
Hill
Position on land form
Dry exposed slopes
Crests
Drainage lines
Moist protected slopes
Slope (range) %, slope shape
10-20 ; Straight
2-10 ; Convex
2-6 ; Concave
5-15 ;.Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Low open forest
Open forest
Dominant species
E. polyanthemos, E. leucoxylon
E. melliodora, E. sideroxylon
E. polyanthemos, E. ovata
E. viminalis, E. leucoxylon
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium; clay, silt, sand and gravel
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Yellow mottled duplex or gradational soils, fine structure
Shallow stony gradational soils
Black gradational soils (variable)
Yellow mottled duplex or gradational soils, fine structure
Factual key
Dy 3.41
Gn 3.71
Gn 3.4
Dy 3.41
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Gravelly loam
Clay loam
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
High
High
Moderately low
High
Depth (range) m
0.5 - 1.0
0.2 - 0.5
>1.0
0.8 - 1.5
LAND USE
Grazing, low production forestry, recreation
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Moderate slopes, hard setting surfaces, low fertility soils
Moderate slopes, hard setting surfaces; low fertility shallow soils
Moderate permeability, hard setting surfaces, dispersibility. Seasonal high
watertable
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces, low fertility soils
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow
Overland flow, subsurface flow,
periodic waterlogging
Overland flow
Forms
Moderate sheet and rill erosion,
surface compaction
Moderate sheet and rill
erosion, surface compaction
Moderate gully erosion,
salting, surface compaction
Minor sheet and rill erosion,
surface compaction


Ors - Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock

Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock - OrsSteep hills and gorges on Ordovician elates and sandstones to the north of the Shire. Ors covers 37.6 km2 or 5.4% of the survey area.

The combination of steep slopes, shallow erodible Boils and low fertility, limits the usefulness of this land for agronomic purposes. This low capacity for production has been recognised by past landowners and much of the land is uncleared. Those areas that are cleared are only capable of supporting grazing at a relatively low carrying capacity. There are often gullies in the drainage lines of grazing land.

Recreation and low-quality forestry are other land uses that occur and, more recently, there has been some rural subdivision and bush-block development. The access tracks and clearings in some of these developed areas are often badly eroded, contributing sediments and dispersible clay to the Moorabool System.

SOILS
The soils of this unit are fairly consistent. They are shallow, stony, gradational soils except on small gently sloping areas where deeper duplex soils may occur.

Mottled Yellow Gradational Soils- Fine Structure

Factual Key: Gn 3.71/CL, 5-15 cm/weathered Ordovician sediments, 30-100 cm

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-8
Brown (7.5YR 4/3) when moist; fine sandy clay loam, sometimes with gravel; apedal, massive and hydrophobic; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B1
8-30
Bright reddish brown (5YR 5/6) when moist with abundant red brown mottles; light medium clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 5.8; diffuse boundary with colluvial stones.
B2
30-50
Reddish brown (5YR 4/6) when moist with abundant red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B/C
50-60
As B2 with 60-80% weathering. Ordovician sedimentary rock.
R
60+
Ordovician rock.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
48
2
45
3
5
4
2
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 610 - 700
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician; slates and sandstones
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Closely dissected steep hilly areas to the north of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
210 - 365
Local relief (av.) m
80
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
6.5
Land form
Hills and ridges
Position on land form
Dry exposed slopes
Crest
Drainage line
Moist protected slopes
Slope (range) %, slope shape
15-35 ; Straight
0-15, Convex
2-10, Concave
10-25 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Open forest
Tall open forest
Dominant species
E. dives, E. obliqua,
E. viminalis, E. radiata
E. obliqua, E. dives,
E. viminalis, E. radiata
E. radiata, E. viminalis
E. obliqua
E. obliqua, E. ovata
E. radiata, E. viminalis
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium, clay, silt, sand, gravel
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Mottled yellow gradational or duplex
soils fine structure
Shallow stony red and yellow
gradational soils
Dark gradational soils (variable)
Mottled yellow gradational or duplex
soils fine structure
Factual key
Gn 3.71/Dy 3.41
Gn 3.71
Gn 4
Gn 3.71/Dy 3.41
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Gravelly loam
Clay loam
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
Moderate
High
Low
Moderate
Depth (range) m
0.4 - 1.2
0.2 - 0.7
1
0.8 - 1.8
LAND USE
The land is generally uncleared, some forestry, grazing areas that have been cleared
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces
Moderate slopes, hard setting surfaces
Moderate permeability, hard setting
surfaces, dispersibility, seasonal high
watertable
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow
Overland flow, subsurface flow,
periodic waterlogging
Overland flow
Forms
Severe sheet and rill erosion
Severe sheet and rill erosion
Severe gully erosion
Severe sheet and rill erosion


Orsd - Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Ors

Steep Hills with Gradational Soils on Ordovician Sedimentary Rock. Drier than Ors - OrsdClosely dissected terrain with steep rugged slopes and poor shallow soils in the northeast of the Shire. Having a total area of 46 km2, it comprises 6.6% of the total study area. The combination of steep elopes, shallow erodible soils and low fertility, limits the usefulness of this land for agronomic purposes. This low capacity for production has been recognised by past landowners and much of the land is uncleared. Those areas that are cleared are only capable of supporting grazing at a relatively low carrying capacity. There are often gullies in the drainage lines of grazing land.

Recreation and low-quality forestry are other land uses that occur and, more recently, there has been some rural subdivision and bush-block development. The access tracks and clearings in some of these developed areas are often badly eroded, contributing sediments and dispersible clay to the Moorabool System.

Mottled, Yellow Gradational Soils - Fine Structure

Factual Key: Gn 3.71/CL, 5-15 cm/weathered Ordovician sediments, 30-100 cm.

Horizon
Depth (cm)
Description
A
0-8
Brown (7.5YR 4/3) when moist; fine sandy clay loam, sometimes with gravel; apedal, massive and hydrophobic; consistence when dry is hard; pH 5.5; diffuse boundary.
B1
8-30
Bright reddish brown (5YR 5/6) when moist with abundant red brown mottles; light medium clay; moderate angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 5.8; diffuse boundary with colluvial stones.
B2
30-50
Reddish brown (5YR 4/6) when moist with abundant red mottles; medium clay; strong angular blocky 3 mm; consistence when moist is firm; pH 6.0; diffuse boundary.
B/C
50-60
As B2 with 60-80% weathering. Ordovician sedimentary rock.
R
60+
Ordovician rock.

COMPONENT
Proportion %
1
50
2
45
3
3
4
2
CLIMATE
Rainfall(av.) mm
Annual 560 - 600
Temperature(av.) C
Annual 12
GEOLOGY
Age, rock
Ordovician; slates and sandstones
TOPOGRAPHY
Landscape
Closely dissected steep hilly areas mainly in the north-east of the Shire
Elevation (range) m
91 - 350
Local relief (av.) m
52
Drainage pattern
Dendritic
Drainage density km/km2
5.4
Land form
Hills
Position on land form
Dry exposed slopes
Crest
Drainage lines
Moist protected slopes
Slope (range) %, slope shape
14-40 ; Straight
2-10 ; Convex
2-6 ; Concave
10-30 ; Straight
NATIVE VEGETATION
Structure
Low open forest
Open forest
Dominant species
E. polyanthemos, E. macrorhyncha
E. leucoxylon, E. sideroxylon
E. viminalis, E. melliodora
E. polyanthemos, E. ovata,
E. leucoxylon, E. melliodora
E. viminalis
E. leucoxylon
SOIL
Parent material
In-situ weathered rock
In-situ weathered rock
Alluvium, clay, silt, sand, gravel
In-situ weathered rock
Description
Mottled yellow gradational or duplex
soils, fine structure
Shallow stony gradational soils
Black gradational soils (variable)
Mottled yel1ow gradational or duplex
soils, fine stricture
Factual key
Gn 3.71
Gn 3.71
Gn 3.4
Gn 3.71
Surface texture
Fine sandy loam
Gravelly loam
Clay loam
Fine sandy loam
Permeability
High
High
Moderately low
High
Depth (range) m
0.5 - 1.0
0.1 - 0.4
1.0
0.5 - 1.2
LAND USE
Low quality forestry; recreation, some grazing. Much of this land is Crown land.
SOIL DETERIORATION
Critical land features
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces, low
fertility, shallow soils
Moderate slopes, hard setting surfaces,
low fertility shallow soils
Moderate permeability, hard setting
surfaces, dispersibility, seasonal high
watertable
Steep slopes, hard setting surfaces, low
fertility soils
Processes
Overland flow
Overland flow
Overland flow, subsurface flow,
periodic waterlogging
Overland flow
Forms
Severe sheet and rill erosion
Severe sheet and rill erosion
Severe gully erosion,
Occasional salting
Severe sheet and rill erosion
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